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1 CHAPTER 6 Risk, Return, and the Capital Asset Pricing Model

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2 Topics in Chapter Basic return concepts Basic risk concepts Stand-alone risk Portfolio (market) risk Risk and return: CAPM/SML

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3 What are investment returns? Investment returns measure the financial results of an investment. Returns may be historical or prospective (anticipated). Returns can be expressed in: Dollar terms. Percentage terms.

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4 An investment costs $1,000 and is sold after 1 year for $1,100. Dollar return: Percentage return: $ Received - $ Invested $1,100 - $1,000 = $100. $ Return/$ Invested $100/$1,000 = 0.10 = 10%.

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5 What is investment risk? Typically, investment returns are not known with certainty. Investment risk pertains to the probability of earning a return less than that expected. The greater the chance of a return far below the expected return, the greater the risk.

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6 Probability Distribution: Which stock is riskier? Why?

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7 Consider the Following Investment Alternatives Econ.Prob.T-BillAltaRepoAm F.MP Bust %-22.0% 28.0% 10.0%-13.0% Below avg Avg Above avg Boom

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8 What is unique about the T- bill return? The T-bill will return 8% regardless of the state of the economy. Is the T-bill riskless?

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9 Alta and Repo vs. the Economy Alta Inds. moves with the economy, so it is positively correlated with the economy. This is the typical situation. Repo Men moves counter to the economy. Such negative correlation is unusual.

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10 Calculate the expected rate of return on each alternative. r = expected rate of return. r Alta = 0.10(-22%) (-2%) (20%) (35%) (50%) = 17.4%. ^ ^ n ∑ r = ^ i=1 riPi.riPi.

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11 Alta has the highest rate of return. Does that make it the best? ^ r Alta 17.4% Market15.0 Am. Foam13.8 T-bill 8.0 Repo 1.7

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12 What is the standard deviation of returns for each alternative? σ = Standard deviation σ = √ Variance = √ σ 2 n ∑ i=1 = √ (r i – r) 2 P i. ^

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13 = [( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] 1/2 = 20.0%. Standard Deviation of Alta Industries

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14 T-bills = 0.0%. Alta = 20.0%. Repo = 13.4%. Am Foam = 18.8%. Market = 15.3%. Standard Deviation of Alternatives

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15 Stand-Alone Risk Standard deviation measures the stand- alone risk of an investment. The larger the standard deviation, the higher the probability that returns will be far below and above the expected return.

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16 Expected Return versus Risk Security Expected Return Risk, Alta 17.4% 20.0% Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo

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17 Return vs. Risk (Std. Dev.): Which investment is better?

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18 How are betas calculated? In addition to measuring a stock’s contribution of risk to a portfolio, beta also measures the stock’s volatility relative to the market.

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19 Using a Regression to Estimate Beta Run a regression with returns on the stock in question plotted on the Y axis and returns on the market portfolio plotted on the X axis. The slope of the regression line, which measures relative volatility, is defined as the stock’s beta coefficient, or b.

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20 Use the historical stock returns to calculate the beta for PQU. YearMarketPQU % 40.0% 2 8.0%-15.0% %-15.0% % 35.0% % 10.0% % 30.0% % 42.0% %-10.0% %-25.0% % 25.0%

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21 Calculating Beta for PQU

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22 What is beta for PQU? The regression line, and hence beta, can be found using a calculator with a regression function or a spreadsheet program. In this example, b =

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23 Calculating Beta in Practice Many analysts use the S&P 500 to find the market return. Analysts typically use four or five years’ of monthly returns to establish the regression line. Some analysts use 52 weeks of weekly returns.

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24 How is beta interpreted? If b = 1.0, stock has average risk. If b > 1.0, stock is riskier than average. If b < 1.0, stock is less risky than average. Most stocks have betas in the range of 0.5 to 1.5.

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25 Other Web Sites for Beta Go to Enter the ticker symbol for a “Stock Quote”, such as IBM or Dell, then click GO. When the quote comes up, select Key Statistics from panel on left.

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26 Expected Return versus Market Risk: Which investment is best? Security Expected Return (%)Risk, b Alta Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Men

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27 CAPM model r i = r RF + (RP M )b i. Assume r RF = 8%; r M = 15%. RP M = (r M - r RF ) = 15% - 8% = 7%.

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28 Required Rates of Return r Alta = 8.0% + (7%)(1.29) = 17%. r M = 8.0% + (7%)(1.00) = 15.0%. r Am. F. = 8.0% + (7%)(0.68) = 12.8%. r T-bill = 8.0% + (7%)(0.00) = 8.0%. r Repo = 8.0% + (7%)(-0.86) = 2.0%.

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29 Expected versus Required Returns (%) Exp.Req. rr Alta Undervalued Market 15.0 Fairly valued Am. Foam Undervalued T-bills 8.0 Fairly valued Repo Overvalued

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30 SML: r i = r RF + (RP M ) b i r i = 8% + (7%) b i.. Repo. Alta T-bills. Am. Foam r M = 15 r RF = r i (%) Risk, b i Market

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Homework Assignment Problems: 2,3,4,5 (a, b), 6

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