Presentation on theme: "FI Corporate Finance Leng Ling"— Presentation transcript:
1FI 3300 - Corporate Finance Leng Ling FINC3131 Business FinanceChapter 9: Stocks and Their Valuation
2Learning objectives Compute the price of a preferred stock. Compute the price of common stock under various assumptions about dividend growth.
3Preferred stock Hybrid security. Like bonds, preferred stockholders receive a fixed dividend that must be paid before dividends are paid to common stockholders.However, companies can omit preferred dividend payments without fear of pushing the firm into bankruptcy.
4Common Stock Represents ownership Ownership implies control Stockholders elect directorsDirectors elect managementManagement’s goal: Maximize the stock price
5Dividend growth modelValue of a stock is the present value of the future dividends expected to be generated by the stock.
6FI 3300 - Corporate Finance Leng Ling Preferred stockPays a fixed dividend forever.Price of preferred stock is simply the present value of a perpetuity.Required rate of return on preferred stock.Preferred stock dividendPrice of preferred stockRequired rate of return on preferred stock/ cost of capital for preferred stock
7FI 3300 - Corporate Finance Leng Ling Common stockFor common stock, the future cash flows are:DividendsSelling priceThese cash flows are highly uncertain.To find the value of common stock, we make assumptions about how dividends evolve in the future. We look at 3 set of assumptions:Constant dividend streamDividends grow at constant rate (constant dividend growth model)Non-constant dividend growth
8Constant dividend stream FI Corporate Finance Leng LingConstant dividend streamSame amount of dividend is paid for ever.Cash flow stream resembles a perpetuity.Thus, we value the common stock in the same way as we value the preferred stock.Common stock price, PeCost of equity capital, reCommon stock dividendCost of equity capital or required rate of return on equity
9Dividends grow at constant rate 1 Assume that dividends grow at a constant rate, g, per period forever.Given this assumption, the price of common stock equalsDon’t panic.D1 = D0(1 + g)D0 = Dividend that the firm just paidRequired rate of return on equityDividend growth rate
10Dividends grow at constant rate 2 Useful properties.All other things unchanged,If D0 increases (decreases), Pe increases (decreases).If g increases (decreases), Pe increases (decreases).If re increases (decreases), Pe decreases (increases).
11Dividends grow at constant rate 2 FI Corporate Finance Leng LingDividends grow at constant rate 2By rearranging the above equation, we can find the required rate of return on equityFor the constant growth model to work, re > g.Capital gains yieldRequired rate of return on equityDividend yield
12Constant growth problems 1 FI Corporate Finance Leng LingConstant growth problems 1Jarrow Company will pay an annual dividend of $3 per share one year from today. The dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 7% permanently. The market requires 15% What is the current price of the stock (to 2 decimal places)?In this question D1 is already given to you.Verify that Price = $37.5
13Constant growth problems 2 FI Corporate Finance Leng LingConstant growth problems 2Johnson Foods Inc. just paid a dividend of $10 (i.e., D0 = 10.00). Its dividends are expected to grow at a 4% annual rate forever. If you require a 15% rate of return on investments of this risk level, what is Johnson Foods’s current stock price? (to 2 decimal places)Straightforward application of price formula.Verify that price = $94.55
14Constant growth problems 3 FI Corporate Finance Leng LingConstant growth problems 3The price of a stock in the market is $62. You know that the firm has just paid a dividend of $5 per share (i.e., D0 = 5). The dividend growth rate is expected to be 6 percent forever. What is the investors’ required rate of return for this stock (to 2 decimal places)?Use re = (D1/P) + g.Verify that re = 14.55%
15Constant growth problems 4 FI Corporate Finance Leng LingConstant growth problems 4A firm is expected to pay a dividend of $5.00 on its stock next year. The price of this stock is $40 and the investor’s required rate of return is 20%. The firm’s dividends grow at a constant rate. What is this constant dividend growth rate (g)?use re = (D1/P) + gVerify that g = 7.5%
16Constant growth problems 5 FI Corporate Finance Leng LingConstant growth problems 5In order to use the constant dividend growth model to value a stock it must be true that:a. The required rate of return is less than the expected dividend growth rate.b. The expected dividend growth rate is greater than zero.c. The next dividend (D1) is expected to be greater than $1.00.d. The expected dividend growth rate is less than the required rate of return.Which statement is correct?
17Non-constant dividend growth 1 FI Corporate Finance Leng LingNon-constant dividend growth 1With this assumption, dividends grow at different rates for different periods of time. Eventually, dividends will grow at a constant rate forever.Time line is very useful for valuing this type of stocks.To value such stocks, also need the constant growth formula.Best way to learn is through an example.
18Non-constant dividend growth 2 FI Corporate Finance Leng LingNon-constant dividend growth 2ABC Co. is expected to pay dividends at the end of the next three years of $2, $3, $3.50, respectively. After three years, the dividend is expected to grow at 5% constant annual rate forever. If the required rate of return on this stock is 15%, what is the current stock price?Dividends grow at 5% forever$2.00$3.00$3.50T = 0T =1T = 2T = 3T = 4
19FI 3300 - Corporate Finance Leng Ling What to do?Use constant growth formula to find stock price at the end of year 3. Call this stock price P3.Add P3 to dividend received at t=3. This sum is the cash flow for t=3. Find PV of this cash flow.Find PV of dividends at t=1, t=2.Current stock price = sum of 2 and 3.
20Apply the method to find ABC’s stock price FI Corporate Finance Leng LingApply the method to find ABC’s stock priceP3 = (3.5 x (1.05))/(0.15 – 0.05) = 36.75At t=3, cash flow is = 40.25Current stock price, P0
21If D0 = $2 , r=13% and g = 30% for 3 years before achieving long-run growth of 6%, what is the PV? Can no longer use just the constant growth model to find stock value.However, the growth does become constant after 3 years.
23Another type of non-constant growth problem FI Corporate Finance Leng LingAnother type of non-constant growth problemMalcolm Manufacturing, Inc. just paid a $2.00 annual dividend (that is, D0 = 2.00). Investors believe that the firm will grow at 10% annually for the next 2 years and 6% annually forever thereafter. Assuming a required return of 15%, what is the current price of the stock (to 2 decimal places)?Use timeline to ‘see’ the problem better.Verify that stock price = $25.29
24Summary Find the price/ present value of equity securities Consols, preferred stock are valued using the same techniques.Common stocks are valued under 3 different assumptions about dividendsConstant dividendsDividends grow at constant rateDividends grow at different ratesAssignment:self-test question ST-3 ST-4problems: