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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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13-2 The WACC and Company Valuation The required rate of return on a firms projects can be calculated using the weighted-average cost of capital. The weighted-average cost of capital (WACC) is the after-tax return the company needs to earn in order to satisfy all its security holders.

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13-3 Company Cost of Capital The opportunity cost of capital for the firms existing assets. The minimum acceptable rate of return when the firm expands by investing in average-risk projects. Capital Structure The mix of long-term debt and equity financing. Used to value new assets that have the same risk as the old ones.

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13-4 Company Cost of Capital The company cost of capital is a weighted average of returns demanded by debt and equity investors.

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13-5 Company Cost of Capital: Example Macrosoft, Inc. has issued long-term bonds with a present value of $25 million and a yield of 8%. It currently has 12 million shares outstanding, trading at $20 each, offering an expected return of 14%. What is the firms cost of capital?

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13-6 Weighted Average Cost of Capital For proper valuation we must value the firms after-tax cash flows. Why is it important to account for taxes?

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13-7 Weighted Average Cost of Capital The WACC provides a firms after-tax cost of capital. Where: T c = The firms average tax rate

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13-8 Calculating WACC A firms WACC is calculated in 3 steps: 1.Calculate the value of each security as a proportion of firm value. 2.Determine the required rate of return on each security. 3.Calculate a weighted average of the after-tax return on the debt and return on the equity.

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13-9 Calculating WACC: Example What is the WACC for a firm with $30 million in outstanding debt with a required return of 8%, 8 million in equity shares outstanding trading at $15 each with a required return of 12%, and a tax rate of 35%?

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13-10 Calculating WACC If there are 3 (or more) sources of financing, simply calculate the weighted-average after-tax return of each security type. If the firm issues preferred stock:

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13-11 Calculating WACC: Example Consider a firm with $8 million in outstanding bonds, $15 million worth of outstanding common stock, and $5 million worth of outstanding preferred stock. Assume required returns of 8%, 12%, and 10%, respectively, and a 35% tax rate

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13-12 WACC and NPV In our previous example, we calculated the firms WACC to be 9.7% Would NPV be positive or negative if: We invested in a project offering a 9% return? We invested in a project offering a 10% return? We invested in a project offering a 9.7% return?

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13-13 Measuring Capital Structure When estimating WACC, use market values, not book values. Market Value of Debt Present Value of all coupons and principal, discounted at the current YTM. Market Value of Equity Market price per share multiplied by the number of shares outstanding.

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13-14 Measuring Capital Structure: Example If a firms bonds pay a 5% coupon and mature in 3 years, what is their market value, assuming a 7% yield to maturity? Assume the bond has a $1,000 par value.

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13-15 Calculating Expected Returns To calculate the WACC, we must first calculate the rates of return that investors expect from each security. Expected returns on bonds Expected returns on common stock Expected returns on preferred stock

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13-16 Expected Return on Bonds The risk of bankruptcy aside, the yield to maturity represents an investors expected return on a firms bonds.

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13-17 Expected Return on Common Stock Estimating r equity using CAPM: Example: A firms beta is 1.5, Treasury bills currently yield 4%, and the long-run market risk premium is 8%. What is the firms cost of equity?

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13-18 Expected Return on Common Stock Estimating r equity using the DDM: Example: A firms shares are trading for $45 per share. The firm is expected to pay a $2 per share dividend at the end of the year. What is its expected return on equity assuming a 9% constant growth rate?

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13-19 Expected Return on Preferred Stock A preferred stock that pays a fixed annual dividend is no more than a simple perpetuity.

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13-20 Expected Return on Preferred Stock: Example If a share of preferred stock sells for $40 and it pays a dividend of $3 per share, what is the expected return on that share of stock?

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13-21 WACC Pitfalls The WACC is appropriate only for projects that have the same risk as the firms existing business. Upward/Downward Adjustments Altering Capital Structure Two costs of debt finance: Explicit and Implicit

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13-22 Altering Capital Structure: Example What is the WACC for a firm with $100 million in debt requiring a 6% return and $400 million in equity requiring a 10% return? Assume a tax rate of 35%. What if the firm borrows an additional $150 million to retire some of its shares, but investors now demand 9% on the debt and 12% on equity?

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13-23 Valuing Entire Businesses We can treat entire companies like giant projects and value them using the WACC. Free Cash Flow Cash flow that is not required for investment in fixed assets or working capital and is therefore available to investors.

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13-24 Valuing Entire Businesses

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13-25 Valuing Entire Businesses: Example Use the following information to calculate the value of a business that your firm is considering acquiring. Firms WACC: 12.5% Firms Cash Flows $1 million FCF, years 1-4 $1.05 million FCF, year 5 5% growth after 4 years

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13-26 Valuing Entire Businesses: Example

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