# Mirrors And Lenses Chapter 23.

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Mirrors And Lenses Chapter 23

Introduction Images can be formed by plane or spherical mirrors and by lenses. Ray diagrams will be used

Plane and Curved Mirrors
Important terms: Object distance (p) Image Formed where light rays actually intersect or where they appear to originate Image distance (q)

Two Types of Images Real image
Light rays actually intersect and pass through the image point. May be formed on a screen

Virtual Image Light rays only appear to come from the image point.
Cannot be formed on a screen Example: images in flat mirrors

Flat Mirrors The image distance (q) always equals the object distance (p). 23.1, 29.1

The image height (h’) always equals the object height (h).
23.2

Images are left-right reversed.

Images are always virtual.
186

Images are always upright.

Magnification (M) is always 1.

Flat Mirrors Summary The image distance always equals the object distance. The image height (h’) always equals the object height (h). Images are left-right reversed. Images are always virtual. Images are always upright. Lateral magnification (M) is always 1.

Applications of Flat Mirrors
Rearview mirrors in cars Dressing room mirrors Bathroom mirrors 242, 29.2

Concave Mirrors Concave mirrors are a part of a sphere. 236, 380

Light reflects from the inner surface.

Images formed may be real or virtual.
The type of image depends upon the object location.

Images may be upright or inverted.

Concave mirrors are sometimes called converging mirrors.

The focal length is positive.

Concave Mirrors Summary
Are a part of a sphere Light reflects from the inner surface. Images formed may be real or virtual. Depends upon object location Images may be upright or inverted. Sometimes called converging mirrors Focal length is positive.

Important Terms Principal axis Image point Image distance (q)
Object distance (p) Center of curvature C Radius of curvature R Focal point (F) Focal length (f) 23.9

Spherical Aberration Spherical aberration is an undesirable characteristic that is present in all spherical mirrors It may be eliminated by using parabolic mirrors.

Parabolic Mirror Applications
Satellite dishes Car headlights Flashlights Projector bulbs Astronomical telescopes

Ray Diagrams Front side and back side of the mirror
Light rays are always in front of the mirror. This is taken to be the left side.

Three Important Rays The intersection of any two rays will locate the image. Parallel rays that come from infinity always pass through the focal point When the object is at infinity, the image is at the focal point 382, 188, 382, 383

The paths of light rays are reversible.
238

Equations for Concave Mirrors
Magnification equation: The mirror equation

Applications of Concave Mirrors
Shaving mirrors Makeup mirrors Solar cookers

Convex Mirrors Convex mirrors are a part of a sphere. 380

Light reflects from the outer surface.

Images formed are always virtual.
They always lie behind the mirror.

Images are always upright.

Convex mirrors are sometimes called diverging mirrors.

The focal length is negative.

Convex Mirrors Summary
Are a part of a sphere Light reflects from the outer surface Images formed are always virtual They always lie behind the mirror. Images are always upright Sometimes called diverging mirrors Focal length is negative

Ray Diagrams for Convex Mirrors
Front side and back side of the mirror Light rays are always in front of the mirror.

Ray Diagrams See Figure 23.11 Three important rays (see pg. 765)
23.11, 240, 384, 23.12

Rays that come from infinity always pass through the focal point.
When the object is at infinity, the image is at the focal point.

The intersection of two rays will locate the image.

Equations for Convex Mirrors
These equations are the same as before. Magnification equation The mirror equation

Sign Conventions for Mirrors
See Table 23.1 on page 765

Applications of Convex Mirrors
Side view mirrors on cars Shoplifting mirrors

Questions 1 - 4, 7 Pg. 783

Images Formed By Refraction
Sign conventions See Table 23.2 on page 770

Apparent Depth Flat refracting surfaces
Apparent Depth (q) vs. Actual Depth (p) n1 is below the surface 23.16, 243

Atmospheric Refraction
The Sun is not where it appears to be. It can be seen even though it is below the horizon. Sun dogs and Moon dogs Halos on cold winter days or nights Refraction through hexagonal ice crystals Mirages 23.21

Thin Lenses A thin lens is a piece of glass or plastic which is ground so that its surfaces are segments of either spheres or planes. A thin lens acts like two prisms.

Refraction in Optical Instruments
Thin lenses are used to form images by refraction in optical instruments Cameras Projectors Microscopes Telescopes Binoculars Magnifying glasses 248, 249

The Thin Lens Equation The lens equation is virtually identical to the mirror equation. 23.23

Common Lens Shapes Converging lenses Diverging lenses Biconvex
Convex-concave Plano-convex Diverging lenses Biconcave Plano-concave 64, 66, 67

Convex Lenses Convex lenses form virtual images when the object is within the focal length of the lens. Example: a simple magnifying glass. Convex lenses form real images when the object is beyond the focal length of the lens. 250

Concave Lenses Concave lenses never form real images

Thin Lens Concepts Focal point (F) Focal length (f) 68
Thin lenses have two. Parallel light rays pass through the lens and converge or appear to originate here. Focal length (f) 68

Magnification Equation
Equation for magnification:

Thin Lens Equation Thin-lens equation:

Lens Maker’s Equation R1 is for the surface closest to the object

The front of the lens The side from which light approaches

Sign Conventions Sign conventions (Table 23.3) pg. 775
Extremely important!

Ray Diagrams Ray diagrams (similar to mirrors) Three important rays
Rays that come from infinity always pass through the focal point. When the object is at infinity, the image is at or appears to be at the focal point. The intersection of two rays will locate the image. 247, 23.25, 69, 70

Thin Lens Combinations
The image formed by the first lens serves as the “object” for the second lens. 256

A location diagram is definitely useful when determining p2.
252

Total Magnification of Thin Lens Combinations
Formula:

Spherical Aberration Similar to that produced by mirrors
In mirrors, it can be reduced by using parabolic surfaces. Parabolic mirrors are used in headlights, satellite dishes, searchlights, and astronomical mirrors. Parabolic surfaces are more expensive to make. 23.30

In lenses, spherical aberration may be reduced by using a small aperture size.

Chromatic Aberration Chromatic aberration results because different wavelengths have different indices of refraction. Chromatic aberration is produced by lenses but not by mirrors.

Chromatic Aberration may be reduced by using combinations of converging and diverging lenses made from different types of glass This is expensive.

Questions 9 - 13 Pg. 784