The Presidency in Action C H A P T E R 14 The Presidency in Action SECTION 1 The Changing View of Presidential Power SECTION 2 The President’s Executive Powers SECTION 3 The Diplomatic and Military Powers The Diplomatic and Military Powers SECTION 4 The Legislative and Judicial Powers SECTION 5 The Executive Office of the President and the Cabinet Chapter 14
Chapter 14, Section 1 The Changing View of Presidential Power S E C T I O N 1 The Changing View of Presidential Power The powers of the President have grown since 1787. The President has a great deal of stature and power. As American economic and social life has become more complex, people have increasingly looked to the President for leadership. Historically, the actions of those Presidents who favored a stronger presidential role have helped expand the powers of the office.
The President’s Executive Powers S E C T I O N 2 The President’s Executive Powers The President is responsible for executing federal laws whose meanings can sometimes be vague. Because enforcing some laws can be a matter of interpretation, the President enjoys some special powers to help him execute and enforce laws. The President can issue executive orders which have the force of law, and he can appoint subordinates or dismiss them as he chooses. Chapter 14, Section 2
Chapter 14, Section 3 The Diplomatic and Military Powers S E C T I O N 3 The Diplomatic and Military Powers The President presides over relations with foreign countries; therefore, he must have certain powers that only the President may perform: (1) negotiate treaties (2) recognize the existence of foreign countries (3) appoint ambassadors and other diplomatic officers Only Congress can declare war but the President, as commander in chief, can carry out military action without the consent of Congress.
The Legislative and Judicial Powers S E C T I O N 4 The Legislative and Judicial Powers As part of the system of checks and balances, the President holds several legislative and judicial powers. The President may recommend legislation and may veto bills passed by Congress; Congress may override a veto but rarely does so. In the judicial field, the President may offer a reprieve or a pardon, he may commute a sentence, or he may offer amnesty. Chapter 14, Section 4
The Executive Office of the President and the Cabinet S E C T I O N 5 The Executive Office of the President and the Cabinet As the President performs his responsibilities, he relies on the assistance and guidance of key advisors and agencies. The Executive Office of the President acts as the President’s “right arm” and includes the White House Office. A key member of this office is the Chief of Staff; other offices support the President’s foreign policy efforts, the administration of the budget, and numerous other endeavors. The cabinet, though never mentioned in the Constitution, has evolved to play two major roles: (1) Each cabinet member serves as head of an executive department. (2) Collectively, the cabinet serves as an advisory body to the President. Chapter 14, Section 5