2Introducing BlueCore2-External, the second generation Bluetooth solution Cambridge Silicon RadioUnit 300 , Science Park,Milton RoadCambridge, CB4 0XL, United KingdomTel:
3The Future of the End-User Market For Bluetooth Devices The market for Bluetooth devices will expand rapidly in the next few yearsBluetooth will become an important selling feature in a huge variety of productsCustomers will increasingly demand more than just basic Bluetooth features, adding:SecurityInteroperabilityPerformanceProduct development cycles will be compressed bringing the need to reuse technology from previous product generations as much as possiblePrices for end user devices will be forced downThe life cycle of new devices will get shorter
4What Kind Of Characteristics Will Be Needed For Success? Short Time To Market: for maximum market responsivenessFully Featured Bluetooth implementation: to get the maximum end-user value from BluetoothLow cost base: to be profitable in a competitive marketA focus on value added features: To differentiate customer end products
5How Can BlueCore2-External Help? Time To Market:Easy to pass qualification testsCan be supplied with compatible Host SoftwareFull RF designs and application support providedBluetooth FeaturesThe most functional base-band in the industryIndustry leading protocol firmwareFull support for ACL, SCO, USB, Piconet, Scatternet and DFUUnique Security featuresLow CostCMOS technologyMinimum external components: for class 2 operation Bluecore2-External requires just a single Balum, no LNA, and no TX/RX switch.
6How Can BlueCore2-External Help? All this leaves you to focus on what is really important : creating attractive, fully featured end-user products:
7BlueCore2-External: Features BlueCore2-External is the latest Bluetooth solution from CSRSingle chip: radio and microcontoller are located on the same dieIndustry standard CMOS silicon (0.18mm process)32kbytes of internal RAMSupport for up to 8Mbits of external FlashInterfaces: PCM, USB, UART, I2C0.5mm or 0.65mm ball pitch (6´6mm or 8´8mm package)96 Ball VFBGA package
8Focus On Time To Market Qualified How can the new BlueCore2-External device reduce time to market?Design: BlueCore2-External comes with full RF designs (including PCB layouts and detailed BOM)Radio performance is excellent across the full industrial temperature range so it is easy to produce a device which passes all the Bluetooth qualification tests with easeHost Software: CSR can supply host software suitable for PC or embedded platforms. This is pre-configured to work correctly with BlueCore2-External.Qualified
9BlueCore2-External - A CMOS RF engine that excels Bluetooth Qualification test: Sensitivity: RCA/CA/02/C RCA/CA/02/C Output Power: TRM/CA/01/CBlue Lines - levels needed to pass Qualification TestsOutcome: BlueCore2 External operates within Bluetooth limits between -35 and 110°CCircuit: CSR standard test circuit (details available)
10Adjacent Channel Power Bluetooth Qualification Test: “TX Output Spectrum -adjacent channel power” TRM/CA/06/COutcome - PASSTransmit Power = 7dBmTemperature=20°C Circuit: CSR standard test circuit (details available)(1) Maximum allowed adjacent channel power (f=f0 + 2MHz).(2) Maximum allowed adjacent channel power (f=f0 + 3MHz).
1120dB BandwidthBluetooth Qualification Test: “TX Output Spectrum - 20dB bandwidth” TRM/CA/05/C;Outcome - PASSTransmit Power = 7dBmMeasurement bandwidth= 10kHzTemperature=20°C Circuit: CSR standard test circuit (details available)(1) Maximum allowed 20dB bandwidth.
12Transmitter Eye Diagram Optimum eye with limited Inter-Symbol InterferanceTransmit Power = 7dBmData: full DH5 packet including preamble (approx bits)Temperature= 20°CCircuit: CSR standard test circuit (details available)
13Drift TestBluetooth Qualification Test: “Carrier Frequency Drift” TRM/CA/09/CRed lines are the bounds for a test passOutcome: PASSTransmit Power = 7dBmTemperature=20°CCircuit: CSR standard test circuit (details available)
14Synthesiser SettlingBlueCore2 settles very quickly - before the output power is fully ramped up.Bluetooth Qualification Tests: “Carrier Frequency Drift” TRM/CA/09/C ”Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerance” TRM/CA/09/COutcome: PassTransmit Power = 7dBmTemperature=20°CCircuit: CSR standard test circuit (details available)
15Minimum Modulation Test Bluetooth Qualification Test: TRA/CA/07/C “Modulation Characteristics”Green lines are the bounds for a test passOutcome: PASSTransmit Power = 7dBmTemperature=20°CCircuit: CSR standard test circuit (details available)
16Maximum Modulation Test Bluetooth Qualification Test: TRA/CA/07/C “Modulation Characteristics”Average modulation must be between 140 and 175KHz.BlueCore2-External average modulation = 165kHzOutcome: PASSTransmit Power = 7dBmTemperature=20°CCircuit: CSR standard test circuit (details available)
17All RF Designs Included Including:SchematicPCB LayoutDetailed BOMComprehensive application support
18Host Software - Reducing Complexity Bluecore2-External can be supplied with host side software:Suitable for Windows 98SE, Windows ME, Windows 2000Standard Windows interface for ease of useCan be OEM BrandedNo additional software engineering necessaryBlueCore2 - the industry’s only truly complete Bluetooth solution
19Prototyping With BlueCore2-External Bluecore2-External is the first is the BlueCore2 family.BlueCore2-External - the BlueCore2 radio and base-band IC used with external Flash memory device for flexibility and low costBlueCore2-Flash - the BlueCore2 radio and base-band together with integrated Mbit flash memory for small size and high flexibilityBlueCore2-ROM - BlueCore2 with firmware on integrated 4MbitROM for small size and lowest costBlueCore2-External can be used to develop software for the other devices:External Flash can be reprogrammed very quicklyWhen software is ready customers can switch to BlueCore2-ROM for the smallest possible solution
20Focus On Bluetooth Features The first generation of Bluetooth products offer only basic point to point connectionsConsumers will soon expect much more:SecurityData IntegrityMulti-point featuresPower SavingReal world performance, e.g. interoperability and performance in noisy environmentsOnly vendors who supply these feature will prosper in the future highly competitive Market for Bluetooth devices
21Security Security is important to prevent: eavesdropping: with obvious implicationsunauthorised access to networks: system managers can no longer rely on physical securityfraudulent use of other people’s cell ‘phonesmalicious attacks
22SecurityAlthough these appear obvious, there are subtleties within Bluetooth which must be understood if a system is to be secure:Not all devices have an input mechanism (computer mice, headsets etc). Therefore fixed PINs must be supported (and in fact are mandatory for several profiles), and must be stored securelyIf a device can be cloned, then access is immediately open to any device it is paired with. So things like Bluetooth address and all keys must not be easily changed by the user once the module is made: without this feature someone can use your ‘phone and you’d never catch them!Encryption must still work with power saving modesThe basis of the Bluetooth security is random numbers. These must be true random numbers, not pseudo randomAlthough DFU is highly desirable to allow upgrade, if not authenticated then a virus could render all Bluetooth devices unusable or even just destroy the security (for instance send the link keys to an account!)Some devices require firmware to be downloaded from the host into device RAM at boot time. As well as having a large die size to accommodate all the RAM such devices are extremely vulnerable to attack from malicious code masquerading as legitimate firmware.
23SecurityTo solve these issues CSR has taken great care, and offers the following unique and comprehensive features:Full Bluetooth authentication and encryption, with the maximum length settable at module manufacture up to 128 bitsBroadcast encryption during Park modeFixed PINs in the LMTwo level access to the non volatile storage, with a security bit set at the end of manufactureLink keys can optionally be stored in the SIM card of a cell phone rather than in the Bluetooth moduleA proprietary (patent applied for) true random number generator. The sequence is different each time even after chip resets, and can never be predictedDigital signature based on 1024 bit RSA for firmware upgrades. Each module manufacturer chooses his private and public keys independently, so no unauthorised firmware can be loaded by DFU
24Data IntegrityL2CAP is supposed to be reliable through error recovery at basebandActually baseband error recovery is not 100% reliable, so it is impossible to completely escape the effects ofInterferenceExtremes of rangeThe probability of corruption of L2CAP data under these conditions is shown in the following graphs:
25Data Integrity - the probability of errors as a function of packet type As can be seen, a naïve selection of packet type will result in corruption at L2CAP.But some profiles (eg printer) assume that L2CAP is reliable - the Baseband must therefore make a good choice of packet type.
26Data Integrity - the effect of bit error rate on bandwidth Although one might at first think that the maximum data rate will always be achieved with long DH packets, it can be seen that this is not the case due to the re-try probability.A good algorithm selects a packet type that simultaneously gives maximum data rate and best integrity
27Channel Quality Driven Data Rate Dynamic RF Power Control=Channel Quality Driven Data Rate=Can youtalk louder?Can youtalk more slowly?
28Data Integrity, conclusions An algorithm that selects packet type solely on the amount data to be sent will cause data corruptionThere is a mechanism built in to Bluetooth, Channel Quality Driven Data Rate (CQDDR), which solves range or constant interference issues if correctly implementedSolutions without CQDDR will not be able to maintain high bandwidth connections in noisy, real world environments and will cause some profiles simply not to workCQDDR is likely to become a mandatory part of the Bluetooth 1.1 spec in futureThe connection manager or application (in the upper layer stack) can make intelligent tradeoffs between bandwidth and integrity, but only if it has access to packet and BER statistics. CSR provides these via bccmd (note this is made use of today in some more sophisticated applications)Additional recovery from burst errors (due to interference) can be built into the baseband: this is an area where there are strong differences between implementations
29Data Integrity - questions to ask a potential silicon supplier What is the maximum data rate achievable using your device?What is the aggregate data rate when transferring bi-directional data?What is the aggregate data rate when transferring bi-directional data between multiple slaves?How do these degrade in the presence of other piconets?What is the guaranteed reliability at L2CAP with your system? What happens at range extremes?Does your solution support Channel Quality Driven Data Rate?Note: the ability of the upper stack to recover from L2CAP errors does have some relevance
30Audio FeaturesBlueCore2-External has flexible A PCM interface which interfaces directly to devices such as:Qualcomm MSM 3000/5000, (CDMA device with codec interface),OKI MSM7705, (four channel µ/A-law codec),Motorola MC145481, (8-bit µ/A-law codec),Motorola MC145483, (13-bit linear codec),Mitel MT93LI6 (Echo canceller).This makes BlueCore2-External ideal for audio applications such as:Cordless Telephone Base-stationsAudio Gateway ApplicationsConference Calling Equipment
31Multi-User featuresMulti-User applications for Bluetooth look set to become very popular:Shared printers for offices, airliners, trains etcNetwork access pointsTelephony systems
32Multi-User features, Continued Which Bluetooth features are necessary in order to serve these application?Role Switching, from master to slave and vice versaAbility to be discovered and connected to while already master of a piconet (I.e. a limited Scatternet)Simultaneous data and voiceReceived Signal Strength Indication and Power ControlLoad balancingCall hand off
33Multi-User features, continued Consider a network access point:Role Switching, from master to slave and vice versaVital, to allow connection to be initiated by either the access point or the client computerLimited ScatternetNeeded when initiating connection to a device which is already acting as a masterAllows device to be both a slave and a masterUsually necessary until role switch possibleThis is much more important than being slave in two piconetsReceived Signal Strength Indication and Power Controlneeded to support load balancingneeded for call hand off, which allows roaming
34Power Saving Modes The Bluetooth spec includes power saving modes Park modeSniff modeHold modeThese are are essential for low power operationBattery life will be a key differentiator between Bluetooth enabled end-user productsSniff mode is essential for small battery powered peripherals like headsets, human interface devices while connectedPark mode is mandatory for many profiles
35Power Saving ModesEven devices without power constraints need to be able to support battery powered devices.For example consider a mains powered, Bluetooth enabled PC:A Bluetooth enabled Mouse or Keyboard needs to go into power saving mode,This is only possible if the PC also supports SniffThus a PC, an audio gateway or an access point must support Park and Sniff or they can’t be used with wireless mice, keyboards headsets or cell ‘phone handsets!Bluetooth allows the low power device to use an inaccurate clock. Unless the Baseband design can accept and generate LMP Timing Accuracy Request and accept the specified 250ppm, then it is not Bluetooth compliant. We believe that many implementations are deficient in this regard.
36Battery LifeAssuming that the Bluetooth silicon supports power saving modes, what other factors influence battery life?Power Consumption usually stated as follows:Current consumption during transmitCurrent consumption during receiveCurrent consumption when idle or ParkedBut the end user is concerned only with Battery Life, so in practice how does power consumption relate to battery life?
37Battery life - duty cycle Need to consider whole duty cycle:PDA user:Download web page (receive power consumption) secondsRead web page (either parked or in Sniff mode, latency ~1 to 2 seconds) secondsVoice link (SCO channel HV3 packets)Transmit approx. 15% of duty cycleReceive approx. 15% of duty cycleIdle approx. 70% of duty cycleIt is misleading to compare current consumption figures of radio only; often power consumption when connected but not transferring data has the most impact on battery lifeThe highly integrated system approach of CSR gives the lowest energy consumption in battery powered applications when one considers real usage
38Power Saving ModesCSR BlueCore2-External power consumption in different modes.
39Features Round-upPublicly Declared features that are Bluetooth Qualified:Limited EncryptionAllows ‘eavesdroppers’ insome situationsOnly CSRMost don’t do Park yet!(very important for majorityof embedded, battery poweredapplications)Essentialfor AccessPointsSome do not qualify basic functions yet e.g.VoiceMany are not reliable at high temperatureOnly CSR supports secure firmware upgrade via standard DFU interface. Others may be impossible to upgrade or vulnerable to virus attackData gathered from Bluetooth Qualification website, 3rd October 2001
40CSR - The Business CaseThe Business Case for BlueCore2-External is clear:Excellent performance specification in all areas RF, Baseband functions, firmwareComplete solutions with host resident software also offeredUnparalleled security of supply by use of CMOS processingLow cost by use of CMOS processingA verifiable roadmap for future cost reductions ($5 and beyond) based on the rapid development path of CMOS processingA commitment to Bluetooth
41Reliable Supply Is Essential If an end-user walks into a shop to purchase your product they expect it to be immediately available. If it is not you risk:Lost salesLost market shareCustomer dissatisfactionLack of credibilityCan all silicon suppliers offer security of supply?
42CMOS - Can You Risk Using Anything Else? BlueCore2-External, like all CSR products, uses industry standard, advanced CMOS technologyCSR’s foundry partners are the top volume producers of CMOSST Microelectronics - the third largest independent semiconductor company in the worldTSMC - the largest wafer foundry supplier in the worldCMOSBICMOSSiGeSOINumber of fabs> 50115< 5Mask levels> 30Relative Cost / mm2100%150%180%>150%
43Availability - questions to ask a potential silicon supplier How many alternative fab’s are there capable of making your device?What contingency plans do you have in place?Is your manufacturing capability scalable?Could you supply 100 Million devices?
44A Believable Roadmap to $5 and Beyond When talking about cost two elements need to be considered:The cost of the Bluetooth deviceThe cost of all the external components
45A Believable Roadmap to $5 and Beyond The cost of a device depends on many factors including:Die SizeCost of manufacturingBlueCore2-External:Smallest die - the CSR stack delivers full speed data transfer, mixed voice and data, plus seven slave piconet using less than 32Kbyte RAM. Others need up to 256K.Standard CMOS technology - for low cost manufacturing
46Halve Your Component Costs With Combined Tx/Rx Terminals BlueCore2-External has unique internally switched transmit and receive terminals.This reduces the number of external components needed. Not needed (class 2):One Balum = $0.44RF Switch = $0.46Saving = $0.90/chipThis circuit configuration has been used for CSR’s qualification tests at 85°CCompetition DeviceBlueCore2-External
47Cost - questions for potential silicon suppliers How many separate chips does your solution require?Extra chips mean extra costWhat is the total number of interconnects?Multiple chip solutions often require extremely complex PCB designHow many external components (crystals etc)?For class2 operation BlueCore2-external requires only a single balun and no LNAWhat is the danger of shortages of the external components?BlueCore2-External requires only standard components, available from multiple sourcesDo you have a realistic roadmap to a $5 solution?Only a single chip CMOS part will deliver the year-on-year price reduction demanded by the industry
48Summary BlueCore2-External will: Shorten Your Time to Market Allow you to Achieve maximum end-user value from BluetoothReduce the overall cost of your Bluetooth implementation