Presentation on theme: "1. A Republican President 2. The Louisiana Purchase 3. New Threats From Overseas 4. The Road to War 5. The War of 1812 The Age of Jefferson."— Presentation transcript:
1. A Republican President 2. The Louisiana Purchase 3. New Threats From Overseas 4. The Road to War 5. The War of 1812 The Age of Jefferson
Simple Kind of Man Walked to his inauguration Took off powdered wig Balanced government bureaucracy between Federalists and Dem-Rep Cut down the size of the government –Decreased the army –Halted plans to expand the navy –Eliminated internal taxes –Reduces influence of National Bank
The South is Rising Jefferson takes office in new capital city, Washington, D.C. Federalists involvement in campaigns declining –Did not want to appeal to commoners for support
New Economic Policies Laissez fair: a French term meaning “let alone”. Jefferson not only wanted to reduce the Federal budget, but reduce Federal involvement. Jefferson adopted a Free Market where goods and services are exchanged with little regulation.
The Federalist Giveth and Jefferson Taketh away! Jefferson repealed the exercise tax on Whiskey Also decreased the size of government departments The Navy and Army were decreased He allowed the Alien and Sedition to expire
Not Everything Federalist is Bad Jefferson did not discard all Federalist policies. On the Advice of his Treasury Secretary, Albert Gallatin, he kept the Bank of The United States. The federal government also continued to pay off state debts.
Strengthening the Supreme Court The Federalist, before Jefferson took office, wanted to keep some of their own in power.
Packing the Court Judiciary Act of 1801 –Increases number of federal judges by 16 Adams sought to appoint Federalist judges before his term was over –Midnight Judges – Adams signed appointments late in the last day of his administration
I Believe You Have My Commission William Marbury did not receive his commission –James Madison – Secretary of State Refuses to deliver the commission – Judiciary Act of 1789 required the Supreme Court to order that the papers be delivered
Please Don’t Sue, Please Don’t Sue… Crap! Marbury sued Madison to deliver the commission Chief Justice Marshall, a Federalist, now in a tough spot
Avoiding a Train Wreck Marshall does not order Madison to deliver the commission Instead Marshall declares: –Madison should deliver the commission –The Supreme Court does not have the authority to make him because… The Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional Judicial Review is established –Authority of the Supreme Court to strike down unconstitutional acts of Congress
judicial review doctrine of exhaustion judicial Definitions (2) 1. A higher court's review of a lower court's (or an administrative body's) factual or legal findings. Upon the review, the court may issue a prerogative or prohibitive order or may award damages.court'sreviewlower court's administrativelegalissueprerogativeawarddamages 2. The power of the Supreme court to decide whether a law enacted by a legislature is constitutional or not. All unconstitutional laws are de facto null and void, until the constitution itself is amended to accommodate them.powerlawsde factonull and voidconstitution
Important Facts Thomas Jefferson is considered a Democrat. What does the term Democrat mean? Jefferson believed in a economic policy of laissez faire. What does this term mean? Jefferson also believed in Free Market economy. What does that mean?
Important Facts John Adams, in his last days of office, appointed 16 new federal position. What were these positions? These appointments were rumored to have been done even into the late hours of his last day. Theses appointments were given what nickname? James Madison was sued for not delivering the Commission of one of the above appointments? What was the name of that Court Case?
Important Facts The Supreme Court has the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional and to reject laws they considered unconstitutional. What term is defined here?
Why was control of the Mississippi was important? Describe how the United States purchased Louisiana The results of Lewis and Clark’s Expedition. The Louisiana Purchase
Pinckney’s Treaty (or Treaty of San Lorenzo) Thomas Pinckney was sent to meet with the Spanish to discuss the use of the Port of New Orleans. The Spanish, in fear of an joint US and UK attack, agreed to almost all terms, and gave the US full access of the Mississippi and the Port of New Orleans.
Jefferson is Alarmed Toussaint L’Ouverture led a revolt of enslaved Africans in French controlled Haiti. This alarmed Jefferson, because Louisiana was now under French control he worried Napoleon may try to secure land in North America.
The United States Buys Louisiana
Jefferson First Looks Into New Orleans Jefferson wanted to make sure American farmers would always be able to ship their goods through the port. Jefferson sent Robert Livingston and James Monroe to buy NO and west Florida from Napoleon. $10 million was the max they could spend.
A Surprising Offer French Minister, Talleyrand, took Livingston and Monroe’s offer of $4 million as “Too Low”. What happens next takes both men by surprise. Talleyrand comes back the next day and asks if the US would be interested in buying all of Louisiana. Although they knew they had no authority to buy Louisiana, they made the deal for $15 mil.
Constitutional? Jefferson worried that the purchase overstepped the authority of his office. In the end, he decided that the Office did have the power to make treaties and had the Senate approve the treaty per his request.
Planning an Expedition Meriwether LewisWilliam Clark
Meriwether Lewis was chosen by Jefferson to explore the new territory, and he chose William Clark as his second in command. Group of about 50 men joined. Soldiers Woodsmen Scientist Some where picked up later York, an enslaved African American who had been Clark’s companion since boyhood Time to Explore
Sacajawea Sacajawea served as a guide and interpreter for Lewis and Clark, but she provided safety to. Sacajawea was a Shoshone Indian. Sacajawea, her husband, baby agreed to join the expedition.
1. We will look at the benefits and risks of overseas trade. 2. Describe how the French and the British violated U.S. neutrality 3. Discuss why Jefferson implemented an embargo New Threats From Overseas
Empress of China This was the first U.S. ship to trade with China. The post Revolution overseas trade was booming for the U.S. Traders bought furs from the Native Americans and traded with the Chinese.
Trading Around the World Clever Yankee traders kept a sharp lookout for new goods and markets. In New England traders cut ice into blocks, packed them in sawdust and traded the ice to India for silk and spices.
Conflict With the Barbary States Traders ran the greatest risk in the Mediterranean Sea. Pirates from the Barbary States, the nations along the coast of North Africa, attacked passing vessels. To protect American ships, the U.S. paid a yearly tribute, or bribe to the rules of the Barbary States such as Tripoli.
The Philadelphia In 1801, Tripoli increased its demands. Jefferson refused to pay and Tripoli declared War. Jefferson ordered a blockade of Tripoli, but during the blockade the USS Philadelphia ran aground. To keep Tripoli from using the ship against us, Naval Officer Stephen Decatur had his men burn the ship.
Battle of Tripoli American Marines marched 500 miles to launch a surprise attack on Tripoli. In 1805, the ruler of Tripoli signed a treaty promising not to attack again.
Jefferson Tries and Embargo Embargo: a ban on trade Jefferson hoped the Embargo Act of 1807 would hurt France and Great Britain. –It did hurt them, but it hurt us more –Exports dropped off by $80 million –Merchants began to smuggle goods Jefferson realized the Embargo did not work. He replaced it with the milder Nonintercourse Act, which only ban trade with France and Great Britain
Conflicts between white settlers and natives increase. The War Hawks push for war against Great Britain The Road to War
Conflict with Native Americans About 900,000 white settlers moved west of the Appalachians. They hunted and farmed on Native lands Settlers had ignored treaties signed with the U.S. Little Turtle of the Miami tribe led an armed resistance against many of the white settlers and U.S. military. Armed with British muskets and gunpowder, the Native resistance drove back white settlers from the area.
The Battle of Fallen Timber George Washington had sent General “Mad Anthony” Wayne into the Ohio Valley. Thinking that Wayne would have problems fighting there because of the terrain, the Natives did not give enough thought to his troops.
Treaty of Greenville Having been defeated easily by Wayne’s army. The leaders of the Miami Tribe signed the treaty. They gave up land that would later become part of Ohio. In return, they received $20,000 and the promise for more money if they kept the peace.
Tecumseh’s Confederation Tecumseh Prophet
William Henry Harrison Governor of the Indiana Territory. Convinces many of the native American Chiefs to sign away their land. Three million acres worth.
Tecumseh believed that the only way for the Natives to protect themselves they must form a Confederacy. Tecumseh and his brother Prophet began a reform movement of the Shawnees to rid all traces of “white civilization” They warned that the “Great Spirit” was angry with all the Tribes for abandoning traditional practices. Tecumseh traveled through the southwest to win followers, but many chiefs had already received their payments. Tecumseh’s Confederacy
Battle of Tippecanoe In 1811, in Tecumseh’s absence, Prophet led an attack on Harrison. Harrison struck back.
Battle of Tippecanoe While Tecumseh was away trying to organize Indians in the South Prophet led a surprise attack on William Henry Harrison’s troops. Both Prophet’s and Harrison’s troops suffered heavy casualties In the end Harrison’s troops defeated the Natives and destroyed Prophetstown. Harrison became a national hero
WAR HAWKS John C. Calhoun, SC Henry Clay, KY
A Push for War Henry Clay Stirred by a sense of Nationalism, devotion to one’s country, the War Hawks pushed for war with Great Britain. Clay was upset with the British actions of impressment and arming the natives.
Congress Declares War The British formed a blockade to prevent the US from trading with France A brief naval battle broke out between the two, and the US won. This only increased the cries for war. At last President Madison gave into War fever! In June of 1812, he asked congress for a declaration of War. Americans would soon learn that declaring war was much easier than winning
Declared & Unprepared Jefferson’s cuts to the military had left the US unprepared for War. -The navy had only 16 ships -The Army was small and ill equipped -Few officers knew about warfare -There were few regular troops and the Army depended on volunteers. -The government offered money and land to volunteers -Many volunteers were untrained and many deserted
New England Protest New England Federalist, out of fear of the US gaining land in Canada and Florida, protested the war. They felt that new states would hurt their economy. They convened at the Hartford Convention and threatened secession if the War continues.
Fighting at Sea Isaac Hull, captain of the USS Constitution The Constitution was able to defeat the British ship the HMS Guerriere. The Constitution tore holes in the side of the Guerriere and blew off both mast. British cannon bounced off the Constitution giving it the nickname “Old Ironside” This victory cheered Americans but did little to help the war effort.
War in the West General William Hull, Commander of U.S. Forces One of the goals of the War Hawks was to conquer Canada. They were convinced that Canadians would welcome the chance to remove themselves from British control and join the Americans.
Invasion of Canada - General William Hull moved American troops from Detroit into Canada. -They did not expect much a fight -Canadians had only a few untrained troops, but were led by clever British general, Isaac Brock -Brock paraded his soldiers in Red Coats -Americans thought the Canadians were being aided by experienced British troops. -Brock’s scare tactics worked, and Hull retreated from Canada
Battle of Lake Erie Oliver Hazard Perry In 1813 US set out to win control of Lake Erie. Having no fleet, Perry designed and built his own ships. During the fight, Perry lost his ship, rowed to another ship. Americans eventually won the battle.
“Burning Down the House” The White House, August 24 th, 1814
The Roof, The Roof, The Roof is on fire! In 1814, British troops were raiding and burning towns all along the Atlantic coast Many believed this was in retaliation for the US burning legislative buildings and Governors Mansion in the Battle of York. Washington DC, lost the White House, Capitol, and other legislative buildings. Madison was forced to flee.
Dolly Madison Dolly Madison was still in the White House as the British began to burn it. She had a portrait of George Washington removed from the wall to save it.
Battle of Fort McHenry In the US defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore, this flag continued to fly during the battle inspiring Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner.
Battle of New Orleans This was considered Jackson’s and the United States greatest victory of the war to date.
Oh, The Irony The Battle of New Orleans -US defeated a superior army under General Andrew Jackson. -Hundreds of British Soldiers were killed to just a handful of American soldiers. -The US had fought with great skill and Bravery, but there is just one problem THE WAR WAS ALREADY OVER!
The Treaty of Ghent Prior to the Battle of New Orleans, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on Christmas Eve 1814 declaring Armistice (end to fighting).
The day of the Treaty did not bring resolve at all. It was not until years later that an agreement was made , a commercial treaty re-opened trade , Rush-Bagot agreement limited the # of Warships on the Great Lakes , British-American commission set the northern boundary of the Louisiana the 49 th parallel extended as far west as the Rockies. Terms of the Treaty