Presentation on theme: "Caged Across – I IV and V The 3 principle chords in a major key Main chords By: Frank Markovich."— Presentation transcript:
Caged Across – I IV and V The 3 principle chords in a major key Main chords By: Frank Markovich
Preliminary Instructions Before doing this the student should be solid with the E and A forms of the major chords in the CAGED system. The other 3 forms should at least be able to be fingered. This takes some time. I dont expect you to get this all in one or even a few weeks. Once the Major chords are learned then we will move onto the minor and the dominant 7 th. Everything else is just built off of those chords. You will find the minor and 7h go very fast by comparison to the major chords.
More than just chords These chord forms are also the basis for scales, arpeggios and licks. While you will start with the chords realize that it goes well beyond this. I first heard about CAGED from the great jazz guitarist Joe Pass. I learned this the hard way by trial and error and then come to understand this method that is much easier than how I learned it. While there are 5 basic forms, everything else is built from that.
Working across rather than up the neck Will start in the key of G major. The 3 principle chords in any key are the I, IV and V Chords. Scale in the key of G major is: G, A, B, C, D, E, F#, and G. The Chord build off of I is G major, chord build off the IV (4 th note of the scale) is C Major and the chord build off of the V (D note) is a D7 or for this we will just use a D. In each of these examples the to move from one chord to the next you dont have to move more than 1 fret up or down the neck. While the examples are in the key of G major, it is important to eventually try them in every key!!!
A bit about chord theory Chords are usually built off of the major diatonic scale. For example in the key of G major the notes are and chords are as below – Large M = Major, small m = minor: GABCDEF# GMAmBmCMDMEmF#mb5 IIIIIIIVVVIVII Top line is note, middle is chord, bottom is scale degree!
Notes in the chords – starting with just triads G major (I chord) = G, B, D C major (IV chord) = C, E, G D major (V chord) = D, F#, A Triads are 3 note chords – there are no 7ths and were the first real chords used in music. 7 th s were added a bit later. To understand the theory and how chords developed in music it is best to start with triads. Notice that with these 3 chords all of the notes in G major are represented: G, A, B, C, D, E, F#, G. Also note that the IV chord contains a G same as the I chord and the V chord contains a D also in the I chord. There are no common tones in the IV and V chord (there will be when the 7 th is added to the V chord C will be common).
1 1 1 2 3 4 G D G B D G R 5 R 3 5 R G (E Form – I Chord) 1 3 3 3 X C (A Form – IV chord) 1 1 1 2 3 4 D F# A D F# R 3 5 R 3 D (C form – V chord) First place to start. See how this is the E form to the A form to the C form. You hand does not move more than 1 fret to make any of the changes!! Very key to this. Also the F# on the 1 st string 2 nd fret on the D chord will lead right up to the G on the G chord when you play a V chord to a I chord. Try this to the following: 4/4||: G | C | G | C : || C G C E 1 5 1 3 This is 3 of the 5 forms! Most of you can do the E and A forms without difficulty!
Lets talk a bit about voice leading This is most important in the melody of a song or from one chord to the other in the highest voice. For example, in the previous chords the D chord has an F# as the highest note. That is the 3 rd of the D major chord (or even the D7 chord). The 3 rd of a V chord wants to resolve to the 1 st of the I chord so the F# in D wants to resolve to the G in the G chord. Also in this progression the B in the G chord (3 rd of the I chord) moves very smoothly to the C in the C chord (1 st of the IV chord), (notes on the 3 rd string). And then when the C chord or IV chord goes back to the I chord this is just reversed. Notice in this that in all cases from one chord to the next the notes (other than the bass notes) move very smoothly. This will always sound good in any music. This is referred to as good voice leading. It pays off to know the names of the notes in the chord and the relationship to the chord.
Talk a bit about soloing This is for the more advanced students. Others can try it but it does take some time to master this. Solo to a I IV V progression can be as simple as just playing the notes in the scale. In this case a G major scale. It can be more interesting and more melodic if you use the guide tones – for example for G to C use the melody notes in the scale of B to C and then going from the chords C to G use C to B. When going from D to G use the F# to a G to make a very strong melodic statement. Anyway, the key is to develop a melody. Another approach is to play Major Pentatonic scales to each chord. So for a G major play the G major pentatonic, C major play the C major pentatonic, and for D major play the D major pentatonic. If you do that find common tones between the scales to hang on and tie it all together.
1 1 1 2 3 4 G D G B D G R 5 R 3 5 R G (E Form – I Chord) 1 3 3 3 X C G C E R 5 R 3 C (A Form – IV chord) 1 1 1 2 3 4 D F# A D F# R 3 5 R 3 D (C form – V chord) First place to start. 4/4||: G | C | G | C : || Note 1 Note #1. Notice how the F# in the D chord resolves to the G in the G chord. The chord degrees are written below to help you with this. Along with the letter names of the notes in the chords. Note #2. Notice the B in the G chord moving to the C in the C chord!
Try other combinations 4/4 ||: C | D | C | D : || 4/4 ||:G | C | G | C : || 4/4 ||: G | D | G | D : || This gives you each of the combinations. You should try this in every single one of the examples going forward.
Above is with the notes and tablature. With this see how some of the notes move. You will be making some melodies when you do this. Next step is to add some rhythmic interest but you must first master this step. Another topic is endings. In G an authentic ending would be a D to a G (or D7 to G) which is a V to a I. A plagal ending is like the amen in church and is a IV to a I or in the key of G and C to a G. For 50s type tunes it is common to do a IV to a IVm to a I.
Move this to other keys Do the same pattern and you will have the I IV and V chord up the neck. For example, at the 4 th fret it is Ab Major, 5 th fret is A major, 6 th fret is Bb major, 7 th fret is B major etc. Think of the I – IV and V at each fret. Write out the names of the chords in each key so that you really learn them!
Now apply to songs Apply to as many songs as you can. The more songs that you apply this to the more relaxed that you will become at this until it is just 2 nd nature to you. Songs will be chosen out of the book and handouts. Try in other keys also. Do the blues in the key of A – such as Jump, Jive, and Wail etc. Also try songs such as Wonderful Tonight – Play the Em at the 7 th fret in the Am form or in 1 st position for now. Try in other keys such as C major. Then move the songs to other keys. After just a little time you should be able to play this in many keys.
12 3 D Major X 0 0 12 3 D Major 0 X The 1 st and the 6 th string are the same notes just 2 octaves apart. So to do the moveable D form the best way is to start by moving the note on the first string D (which happens to be F#) to the 6 th string. Some of you know this chord as a D/F# (D major with an F# in the bass). The F# is the 3 rd of the chord. When the 3 rd is in the bass it is called a first inversion. Root inversion is with the root in the bass which is what many of you stick to in your playing. A good movement though could be root position to first inversion. In going from a D to a G this would sound great: Try it!! 4/4 ||: D | D/F# | G | : || Both F#
1 2 3 1 23 4 D Major D Form (E Major) 0 A D A D F# 5 1 5 1 3 X Note you can more the F# on the 1 st string 2 nd fret to The 6 th string 2 nd fret (both strings are the same letter Name – it works out better for most cases. As you can see with this form you dont have to barre. Now you can learn it as a barre based entirely off of the first position D and I would recommend that you try that once this is mastered. See how this form works below. I personally like this form quite a bit and like to go from the E form to this when going to a IV chord (G to C for example). This will be used for the next example! G# E B E 3 1 5 1 One thing that I really like about this particular voicing is how open it sounds. The longer I play the more I appreciate open sounding chords. The large interval between the bass note and the rest of the chord really sets this off. This voicing is used quite a bit in Freddy Green Style playing (Think of Count Basie!)
1 23 4 G (D form) 5 th fret! I Chord X 5 th Fret 1 1 1 3 C (G Form) 5 th fret IV Chord X 5 th fret. 1 3 3 3 X D(A form) 5 th fret V Chord 5 th fret Now to do the same progression but in 5 th position. Lots of things to notice here. To start notice that the C form is now the V chord. 4/4||: G | C | G | C : || Apply to the same progression. B G D G 3 1 5 1 E G C E 3 5 1 3 D A D F# 1 5 1 3
Again look at the F# in the D chord moving to the G in the G chord. Of the examples this is likely the most difficult of the bunch. Knowing that for you should help you move ahead. Once this is down you will have worked with all 5 forms!!!
Move this to other keys just like before Do the same pattern and you will have the I IV and V chord up the neck. For example, at the 4 th fret it is Ab Major, 5 th fret is A major, 6 th fret is Bb major, 7 th fret is B major etc. Think of the I – IV and V at each fret. Write out the names of the chords in each key so that you really learn them!
Now to do the same progression but in 7 th position. Lots of things to notice here. To start notice that the C form is now the V chord. 4/4||: G | C | G | C : || Apply to the same progression. Note how you have already done these forms earlier. So it is just learning where to play them and how they relate to each other. We did the G above in the C form as a D (2 nd position) and the C as a G 3 rd position and the D in the G form as a C. 1 1 1 2 3 4 G B D G B R 3 5 R 3 G (C form – 1 chord) 7 th fret 7 th fret 1 1 1 2 3 4 C G G E G C R 5 R 3 5 R C (E form – IV chord) 8 th fret. 8 th fret 1 1 1 3 D (G Form) 7 th fret IV Chord X 7 th fret F# A D F# 3 5 1 3
Many times in this position the advanced players may do a G/D bass as shown below! 4/4||: G | C | G | C : || 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 3 5 R 3 G (C form – 1 chord) 7 th fret 7 th fret 1 1 1 2 3 4 R 5 R 3 5 R C (E form – IV chord) 8 th fret. 8 th fret 1 1 1 3 D (G Form) 7 th fret IV Chord X 7 th fret
Here are the 2 ways shown in the previous slides. In this one some players do not play the first string on the G chord so that the F# can move on the D chord up to the G in the G chord. Do notice how he B in the G chord moves up to the C in the C chord and then back down to a B in the G chord.
At this point the chords go high up on the neck I will continue in G but realize that on a classical or even a steel string acoustic that this is difficult to impossible. But you can apply it to other keys. Next page gives it in G major first and then in C major. You should be able to play the ones in C.
1 3 3 3 X C(A form) 3rd fret I Chord 3rd fret 1 23 4 F (D form) 3rd fret! IV Chord X 3 h Fret 1 1 1 2 3 4 R 5 R 3 5 R G (E form –V chord) 3rd fret. 3rd fret 1 3 3 3 X G(A form) 10 th fret I Chord 10 th fret 1 23 4 C (D form) 10 th fret! IV Chord X 10 th Fret 1 1 1 2 3 4 R 5 R 3 5 R D (E form –V chord) 10 th fret. 10 th fret G Major C Major
Here it is in notes and tab in the 10 th position. Note that the F# in the D chord is in an inner voice but resolves on that string to a G. Also the B in the G chord moves to the C in the C chord and back again for the G chord. Below is the same thing in the key of C – easier to play.
Last set!! Again same as previous one – G is tough at the 12 th fret but could also be done in 1 st position. As an exercise write the names of the notes from the previous 2 slide. Also going forward. At this point you can figure them out yourself.
1 1 1 3 C (G Form) 5 th fret 1 Chord X 12 th fret. 1 1 1 2 3 4 R 3 5 R 3 F (C form – IV chord) 5 th fret 12 th fret 1 23 4 G (D form) 5 th fret! V Chord X 12 th Fret 1 1 1 3 G (G Form) 12 th fret 1 Chord X 12 th fret. 1 1 1 2 3 4 R 3 5 R 3 C (C form – IV chord) 12 th fret 12 th fret 1 23 4 D (D form) 12 th fret! V Chord X 12 th Fret In G In C
Again on this many players would not hit play the 1 st string on the C chord. It makes a better voice leading from G to C. Try to think of all of these as the I IV and V and not just the G, C and D chords as you play through this. It isnt easy but once you have mastered these you are well over the main things that you will need to master the CAGED system as far as chords go. And the major chords lead directly into the scales.
Now you have done all 5 moves Not that you will never mix them up but this is the easiest way to play the I IV and V chords. Learn each one and try to the progression. Try songs that have the I IV V only. Learn in every key. You will see that the forms also follow the CAGED format. We started with G in the E form, then the next set was G in the D form, the next G in the C form, next G in the A form and lastly G in the G form. It also follows the same for the IV and the V chords.
Now going up the neck in one key. Now we have 3 forms of the D chord moving up the neck. The C form of D to the A form of D to the G form of D. The G form always follows the A form. Look closely at that relationship! Along with the fact that the A form always follows the C form you are 3/5ths of the way there. 1 1 1 2 3 4 C Moveable Chord (D Major) 1 3 3 3 X Note the common tone! A Moveable Chord (D Major Chord) 1 1 1 3 G Form (D Major Chord) X 7 th fret.
From the G form to the E form. 1 1 1 2 G Form (D Major Chord) X 7 th fret. 1 1 1 2 3 4 1 5 1 3 5 1 10 th fret (4) The E form of the D major chord. 1 3 5 1 3 Really notice how the change in order of notes means a difference in the texture of the chord! Again listen. You can also practice singing the chord from bottom note to top or top to bottom.
12 3 1 23 4 D Major D Form (E Major) 0 X Note you can more the F# on the 1 st string 2 nd fret to The 6 th string 2 nd fret (both strings are the same letter Name – it works out better for most cases. As you can see with this form you dont have to barre. Now you can learn it as a barre based entirely off of the first position D and I would recommend that you try that once this is mastered. See how this form works below. I personally like this form quite a bit and like to go from the E form to this when going to a IV chord (G to C for example).
1 1 1 2 3 4 C Moveable Chord (D Major) 1 3 3 3 X A Moveable Chord (D Major Chord) 1 1 1 3 G Form (D Major Chord) X 7 th fret. 1 1 1 2 3 4 10 th fret The E form of the D major chord. (4) 1 23 4 D Form (D Major) X 12 th fret, could have also done in 1 st position. Arrows are pointing to where the roots are and move to.
The G form 2 34 1 1 1 2 3 4 G Major G Form (A Major Chord) This form is usually played without playing the 1 st and 6 th strings. Below is an example of the concept with the 1 st and 6 th strings in the 3 rd diagram muted. Some bands such as the Doobie Brothers used this form as a basis for cool chord riffs. At this point notice that the root moves around by which voicing you are playing. Note that 1 = root. From here on 1 will refer to root rather than writing R. I think of the root of this as being on the 3 rd string or image the note that would be played on the 6 th string. 1 1 1 3 G Form (A Major Chord) X C# E A C# 3 5 1 3 A C# E A C# A 1 3 5 1 3 1
111 E 0 X 1 2 A 33 7 th fret 0 X 7t Fret Chords for Listen To The Music. Note that on the E you will hammer on the 9 th fret with the 3 rd finger and on the A hammer the and and 3 rd finger on. This is very cool and a good example of using these 2 forms. 4/4 ||: E | A : || Will do the whole song at a later date. 1
1 3 3 3 X A Moveable Chord (Bb Major Chord) G Form (Bb Major Chord) X So do Bb then move up to B – Next slide and continue. 1 1 1 3
Goal for this term Learn all the forms and how to find them up the neck in each position. Make sure you can do the chords across like in this paper. Start to visualize the guitar in the key of G major.