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1 Pertemuan 2 PENGGUNAAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI Matakuliah: H0402/PENGELOLAAN SISTEM KOMPUTER Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1/0.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Pertemuan 2 PENGGUNAAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI Matakuliah: H0402/PENGELOLAAN SISTEM KOMPUTER Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1/0."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Pertemuan 2 PENGGUNAAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI Matakuliah: H0402/PENGELOLAAN SISTEM KOMPUTER Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1/0

2 2 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Mengidentifikasikan penggunaan teknologi informasi yang ada saat ini

3 3 Outline Materi Informasi pada perusahaan Managerial support system E-commerce system

4 4 Interorganizational Systems –e-Business applications B2C – link businesses with their end consumers B2B – link businesses with other business customers or suppliers Electronic data interchange (EDI) systems APPLICATION AREAS Informasi pada perusahaan

5 5 A PPLICATION A REAS Intraorganizational Systems –Enterprise systems – support all or most of the organization –Managerial support systems – support a specific manager or group of managers Informasi pada perusahaan

6 6 C RITICAL C ONCEPTS Batch Processing versus Online Processing Batch Processing – group (or batch) of transactions are accumulated, then processed all at one time Informasi pada perusahaan

7 7 Batch Processing versus Online Processing Online Processing – each transaction is entered directly into computer when it occurs C RITICAL C ONCEPTS Informasi pada perusahaan

8 8 Interactive system – a fully functional online system where computer quickly provides a user response In-line system – provides for online data entry, but processing of transactions deferred for batch processing Batch Processing versus Online Processing C RITICAL C ONCEPTS Informasi pada perusahaan

9 9 Functional information systems – information systems framework based on organization’s primary business functions Functional Information Systems Example Business Functions ProductionMarketingAccountingPersonnelEngineering C RITICAL C ONCEPTS Informasi pada perusahaan

10 10 Vertically integrated information system – serves more than one vertical level in an organization or industry Vertical Integration of Systems C RITICAL C ONCEPTS Top Management Long-term trend analysis Middle Management Weekly data analysis to track slow-moving items and productive salespeople Produce invoices Capture initial sales data Example Sales System Informasi pada perusahaan

11 11 Distributed systems – mode of delivery where processing power is distributed to multiple sites, which are then tied together via telecommunication lines –Client-server system – a type of distributed system where processing power is distributed between a central server computer and a number of client computers (usually PCs) Distributed Systems and Client/Server Systems C RITICAL C ONCEPTS

12 12 Client/Server Systems Handles user interface Accesses distributed services through a network Client Runs on bigger machine Handles data storage for applications … –Databases –Web pages –Groupware Server Middleware Software to support clients and server interaction –Microsoft Windows 2003 Server –Novell NetWare –UNIX, Linux C RITICAL C ONCEPTS Informasi pada perusahaan

13 13 Client/Server Systems Two-tier configuration Three-tier configuration Client Server Client Application Server Database Server C RITICAL C ONCEPTS Informasi pada perusahaan

14 14 Fat client/thin server – most processing done on client Thin client/fat server – most processing done on server Note: Web and groupware servers usually thin clients Database servers usually thin servers Client/Server Systems C RITICAL C ONCEPTS Informasi pada perusahaan

15 15 D ECISION S UPPORT S YSTEMS Designed to assist decision makers with unstructured problems Usually interactive Incorporates data and models Data often comes from transaction processing systems or data warehouse Managerial support system

16 16 D ECISION S UPPORT S YSTEMS Three major components Managerial support system

17 17 D ECISION S UPPORT S YSTEMS Specific DSSs – actual DSS applications that directly assist in decision making DSS generator – a software package used to build a specific DSS quickly and easily –Examples: Microsoft Excel or Lotus DSS generator DSS model 1 DSS model 2 DSS model 3 used to create Managerial support system

18 18 Type of DSS to support a group rather than an individual Specialized type of groupware Attempt to make group meetings more productive Now focus on supporting team in all its endeavors, including “different time, different place” mode – virtual teams G ROUP S UPPORT S YSTEMS Middle managers spend 35%, and top managers spend 50-80% of time in meetings! Managerial support system

19 19 GISs – systems based on manipulation of relationships in space that use geographic data G EOGRAPHIC I NFORMATION S YSTEMS –Early GIS users: Natural resource management Public administration NASA and the military Urban planning Forestry Map makers Page 219 Managerial support system

20 20 Business Adopts Geographic Technologies G EOGRAPHIC I NFORMATION S YSTEMS –Business uses: Determining site locations Market analysis and planning Logistics and routing Environmental engineering Geographic pattern analysis Managerial support system

21 21 Approaches to representing spatial data: –Raster-based GISs – rely on dividing space into small, uniform cells (rasters) in a grid –Vector-based GISs – associate features in the landscape with a point, line, or polygon –Geodatabase model – uses object-oriented data concepts What’s Behind Geographic Technologies G EOGRAPHIC I NFORMATION S YSTEMS Managerial support system

22 22 Questions geographic analysis can answer: –What is adjacent to this feature? –Which site is the nearest one? –What is contained within this area? –Which features does this element cross? –How many features are within a certain distance of a site? What’s Behind Geographic Technologies G EOGRAPHIC I NFORMATION S YSTEMS Managerial support system

23 23 E XECUTIVE I NFORMATION S YSTEMS/ B USINESS I NTELLIGENCE S YSTEMS Where does EIS data come from? –Filtered and summarized transaction data (internal) –Collected competitive information (internal and external) EISs – a hands-on tool that focuses, filters, and organizes an executive’s information so he or she can make more effective use of it Managerial support system

24 24 E XECUTIVE I NFORMATION S YSTEMS/ B USINESS I NTELLIGENCE S YSTEMS Executive information system (EIS): –Delivers online current information about business conditions in aggregate form –Easily accessible to senior executives and other managers –Designed to be used without intermediary assistance –Uses state-of-the-art graphics, communications and data storage methods Managerial support system

25 25 Knowledge management (KM): –Set of practical and action-oriented management practices –Involves strategies and processes of identifying, creating, capturing, organizing, transferring, and leveraging knowledge to help compete –Relies on recognizing knowledge held by individuals and the firm K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT S YSTEMS Managerial support system

26 26 Knowledge management system (KMS): –System for managing organizational knowledge –Technology or vehicle that facilitates the sharing and transferring of knowledge so that valuable knowledge can be reused –Enable people and organizations to enhance learning, improve performance, and produce long- term competitive advantage K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT S YSTEMS Managerial support system

27 27 A RTIFICIAL I NTELLIGENCE Six areas: Natural languages Robotics Perceptive systems Genetic programming Expert systems Neural networks AI – the study of how to make computers do things that are currently done better by people Most relevant for managerial support Managerial support system

28 28 Expert systems – attempt to capture the expertise of humans in a computer program E XPERT S YSTEMS Knowledge engineer: –A specially trained systems analyst who works closely with one or more experts in the area of study –Tries to learn about how experts make decisions –Loads information (what learned) into module called knowledge base

29 29 E XPERT S YSTEMS Figure 7.6 Architecture of an Expert System

30 30 E XPERT S YSTEMS Approaches: –Buy a fully developed system created for a specific application –Develop using a purchased expert system shell (basic framework) and user-friendly special language –Have knowledge engineers custom build using special-purpose language (such as Prolog or Lisp) Obtaining an Expert System Managerial support system

31 31 Standford University’s MYCIN – to diagnose and prescribe treatment for meningitis and blood diseases General Electric’s CATS-1 to diagnose mechanical problems in diesel locomotives AT&T’s ACE to locate faults in telephone cables Market Surveillance software – to detect insider trading FAST software – for credit analysis, used by banking industry Nestle Food’s developed system to provide employees information on pension fund status E XPERT S YSTEMS Examples of Expert Systems

32 32 Neural networks – attempt to tease out meaningful patterns from vast amounts of data Process: 1.Program given set of data 2.Program analyzed data, works out correlations, selects variables to create patterns 3.Pattern used to predict outcomes, then results compared to known results 4.Program changes pattern by adjusting variable weights or variables themselves 5.Repeats process over and over to adjust pattern 6.When no further adjustment possible, ready to be used to make predictions for future cases N EURAL N ETWORKS Managerial support system

33 33 N EURAL N ETWORKS Managerial support system

34 34 V IRTUAL R EALITY Virtual reality – use of a computer-based system to create an environment that seems real to one or more senses of users Non-entertainment categories: –Training –Design –Marketing Managerial support system

35 35 TrainingU.S. Army to train tank crews Amoco for training its drivers Duracell for training factory workers on using new equipment DesignDesign of automobiles Walk-throughs of air conditioning/ furnace units MarketingInteractive 3-D images of products (used on the Web) Virtual tours used by real estate companies or resort hotels V IRTUAL R EALITY Managerial support system

36 36 TrainingU.S. Army to train tank crews Amoco for training its drivers Duracell for training factory workers on using new equipment DesignDesign of automobiles Walk-throughs of air conditioning/ furnace units MarketingInteractive 3-D images of products (used on the Web) Virtual tours used by real estate companies or resort hotels V IRTUAL R EALITY Managerial support system

37 37 V IRTUAL R EALITY (Courtesy of Homestore, Inc. Copyright © 2004 Homestore, Inc.) Managerial support system

38 38 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES Electronic commerce – the electronic transmission of buyer/seller transactions and related information between individuals and businesses or between two or more businesses that are trading partners E-Commerce System

39 39 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES Will we see continued growth in e-commerce (Internet) applications? Consider Metcalfe’s Law: The value of a network to each of its members is proportional to the number of other users, expressed as (n2 – n) / 2 –There are increasing returns to be gained as more organizations and people use the Web E-Commerce System

40 40 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES Commercial History of the Internet E-Commerce System

41 41 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES Improvements for online sales or auction bidding New channels for customer service Collection of clickstream metrics and personal data from Web site users Acceptance of Web “cookies” stored on user’s hard drive to enable customization of Web sites Web browser improvements with multimedia Technologies for B2C Applications E-Commerce System

42 42 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES Technologies for B2B Applications Most important technological advance for B2B applications – XML markup language –Now have accepted standards –Can be used for a flexible, low-entry form of EDI Electronic data interchange (EDI) – proprietary applications for communicating with trading partners based on agreed- upon standards for business document transmission E-Commerce System

43 43 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES Technologies for B2B Applications EDI Benefits: –Reduced cycle times for doing business –Cost savings for automated transaction handling and elimination of paper documents –Improved interfirm coordination and reduced interfirm coordination costs EDI Constraints: –Start-up coordination challenges (EDI standards agreement and legal issues) –Start-up and ongoing IT costs E-Commerce System

44 44 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES Technologies for B2B Applications Prediction: –Web forms using XML and extranet applications will continue to grow! E-Commerce System

45 45 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES Potential constraint to e-commerce: lack of security for Internet transactions Issues: –How to control access to a computer that is physically networked to the Internet –How to ensure that security of a given communication is not violated Technologies for IT Security E-Commerce System

46 46 E-C OMMERCE T ECHNOLOGIES How to control access to a computer that is physically networked to the Internet? Use of a firewall – devices that sit between the Internet and an organization’s internal network to block intrusions from unauthorized users and hackers How to ensure that security of a given communication is not violated? Encryption – based on two decoding keys and mathematical principles for factoring a product into its two prime numbers, where one key codes a message and the other decodes it Technologies for IT Security

47 47 Figure 8.2 E-Commerce Framework (Adapted from Applegate, Holsapple, et al. 1996; Kalakota and Whinston, 1996) E-Commerce System

48 48 > Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Managerial Support System E-Commerce system

49 49 APPLICATION AREAS CRITICAL CONCEPTS MANAGERIAL SUPPORT SYSTEM E-COMMERCE SYSTEM PENGGUNAAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI


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