Types of Local Government Counties: the entire county (100 in NC) Example: New Hanover County Municipalities: cities, towns, or villages Example: Wilmington, Ogden, Wrightsville Beach, Carolina Beach, Kure Beach, Porters Neck Every county and municipal government has a legislative and executive branch Raise money through taxes(PRIMARILY PROPERTY TAXES) Spend public funds Set and Implement public policies
What types of Local Governments are there? County New Hanover County CityWilmington Towns(Generally in New England) VillagesLandfall? Special Districts New Hanover County School Board: New Hanover County Water and Sewer
Charter Must get from the state to exist as a local government Outlines the basic rules for the municipal government Municipal charter can be changed by the General Assembly, or, by “home rule” amendments adopted by local governments
Initiative Citizens can propose new laws or state constitutional amendments Citizens who want a new law gather signatures of qualified voters on a petition Then, the proposed law (proposition) is put on the ballot at the next general election
Leandro Case Leandro v. State of North Carolina, 1997 North Carolina Supreme Court People from 5 NC counties filed a lawsuit against the state claiming that the state was not giving their children “adequate or equal educational opportunities” These counties were “low-wealth” counties with little funding Court ruled that the state constitution does not require equal funding of education but does require an adequate education.
State v. Munn 1830 Slaveholder, John Mann, was arrested for beating and wounding an enslaved Africa American named Lydia Chowan County convicted Mann of battery The NC Supreme Court overruled the decision Ruled that the laws of NC state that slaveholders cannot be prosecuted for attacking the enslaved.
14 th Amendment 1868 U.S. citizen is anyone born or naturalized in the U.S. Citizens must have equal protection of the laws and must be given due process of law Incorporates the Bill of Rights to the States as well. With the 14 th Amendment the states must follow the Bill of Rights as well.
Civil Rights Rights of full citizenship and equality under the law Usually associated with the struggles of African Americans in the US 100 years + to secure their rights Civil Rights Act of 1964: prohibited discrimination in public facilities, employment, education, and voter registration
Governor Head of executive branch in each state NC’s governor = Beverly Perdue
North Carolinaexecutives United States GovernorLeaderPresident 30 years old, 5 year citizen, 2 year resident Qualifications35 years old, natural born citizen, 14 year resident 4 year terms- can serve 2 consecutive terms Term4 year terms- can serve only 2 terms or 10 years Same as president except no chief diplomat Roles of LeaderHELP JED C Head of state, chief Executive, Legislative leader, Party leader, Judicial leader, Economic leader, chief Diplomat, Commander-in- Chief Appointed by the Governor, more of an advisory role CabinetAppointed by the President, approved by the Senate, runs executive departments Elected officials running key executive departments, do not answer to the governor Council of StateNone. The executive department secretaries report to the President RecallRemoval processimpeachment
Council of State Executive department heads elected by the people of the state. These individuals are different from the governor’s or president’s cabinet in that they are directly elected by the people and therefore actually limit the governor’s powers. Examples: Secretary of Insurance, etc.