Presentation on theme: "Classical Argument Outline. The basic plan for organizing an argument along classical lines includes six major components: Introduction Statement of Background."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Argument Outline
The basic plan for organizing an argument along classical lines includes six major components: Introduction Statement of Background Proposition Refutation Proof Conclusion
In the introduction you urge your audience to consider the case that you are about to present. This is the time to capture your readers’ attention and introduce your topic.
In the statement of background you narrate, or tell, the key events in the story behind your case. Here is the time to present information so that your audience will understand the nature of the facts you will present. You should also take care to define key terms your argument will use.
This component divides (or partitions) the part focused on background information to the part focused on reasoned persuasion. You must state the position you are taking, based on the information you have presented, and outline the lines the rest of your argument will take.
BECAUSE OF THE TIME RESTRAINTS PERTAINING TO THE AP EXAM, FOR OUR PURPOSES, THE STATEMENT OF BACKGROUND AND PROPOSITION CAN BE DONE IN YOUR INTRODUCTION.
In this section, you anticipate and refute opposing views. By showing what is wrong or lacking in your opponent’s reasoning, you show that you have thought carefully about the issue and have reached the only conclusion that is acceptable in this case. You should be VERY CAREFUL about your TONE in this section. You may also offer a few concessions to the other side to show your reasonable character.
Adhering carefully to your central proposition, you present the heart of your argument to confirm your proposition. You should use ethos, logos, and pathos to make it clear that your central claim is correct. You must offer concrete reasons and discuss each one to provide a unified argument. The more vivid and telling your examples are, the better your argument will be received.
Make a powerful restatement of your central idea(s). You may also include a call to action, which is some concrete action that the reader should do now that you have made your case. In addition, you may cite several benefits for the reader if your position were followed.
These notes were adapted from: The Informed Argument, 6 th Edition. Some of the ideas also came from Kevin Howard, a presenter at the 2009 AP Conference