Presentation on theme: "NATIVES AND EUROPEANS Unit IA AP U.S. History. Big Picture: Development of a New Nation 1450-1791 ► 1. The two hemispheres of the world were at last joined."— Presentation transcript:
NATIVES AND EUROPEANS Unit IA AP U.S. History
Big Picture: Development of a New Nation ► 1. The two hemispheres of the world were at last joined in sustained contact, with the North American colonies integral to the process. As a result, world trade networks greatly enlarged, creating a wealth and power base that the new Americans used to forge a new identity.
Development (Continued) ► 2. The natural environment of North America changed drastically, as imported domestic animals and European customs altered native farming habits. ► Much land was cleared for farming, and population compositions changed as disease spread to previously isolated people.
Development (Con’t) ► 3. Economic changes in North America were numerous, as slavery and other forced labor systems expanded into the new world to become central to its economic activities.
Development (Con’t) ► 4. The new American identity was based on a growing sense of separation from Europe, a process that created the unity necessary to become a nation. ► However, that identity also developed with social, economic, and political divisions in place that later created serious issues that nearly ripped the country apart.
Development (Con’t) ► 5. Political experiments created political structures different from those in Europe, although the English influence on their formation was profound.
Pre-Columbian Societies ► Until the late 15 th Century C. E., developing civilizations in the Americas were almost completely cut off from those in the Eastern Hemisphere. ► Agriculture was independently invented ► Cultural contacts took place within the geographical boundaries of North and South America.
Crossing the Land Bridge ► The crossing of the land bridge from Northern Asia to Alaska is widely accepted. ► Although estimates of when the first migrations took place range from 35,000 years ago to about 15,000 years ago.
Bering Sea Land Bridge Migration
The First Americans ► The first Americans were nomadic hunters of game ► They were also gatherers of wild plants ► They spread gradually throughout North and South America.
Native Map of North America
Native Culture and Lifestyle ► Nomadic ► Sedentary ► Eastern Woodlands Hopewell Iroquois ► Mohawks, Oneidas, Onodagas, Cayugas, Senecas Algonquian ► Mississippian ► Great Plains Sioux ► Southwest Anasazi/Pueblo Cahokia, c CE
Great Serpent Mount - Ohio Great Plains native lifestyle Cliff Palace – ColoradoKincaid - Illinois
The People of North America ► In contrast to Mesoamerica and the Andes region in South America, no major civilization controlled large amounts of land in North America. ► There were a variety of different languages and lifestyles. ► Some were nomadic-hunting bison or deer. In the Arctic- hunted whale, seals, and walruses.
Hunters/Gatherers ► Some were gatherers of berries, roots, grasses to supplement fish or meat. ► Anasazi people used river water to irrigate crops of maize, beans, squash, and sunflowers.
Cahokia ► The largest and most important mound- builder settlement of this period was at Cahokia, located near modern-day East St. Louis, Illinois and the Mississippi River Valley. ► A number of different groups lived in the area who built enormous earthen mounds for ceremonies and platforms for dwellings and burial sites.
1450-North and South America ► From Alaska to South America, nomadism was common, as was subsistence agriculture. ► Diverse cultures developed as well as different language groups. ► Extended families lived together in villages. ► Matrilineal descent-mothers, married daughters, and daughters’ husbands lived close by.
1450 Continued ► In contrast, the nomadic people of the Great Plains generally traced their lineage through patrilineal descent. ► In both types of society, however, men had the power and authority. ► Although equality appears to have existed in the hunting and gathering societies.
Iroquois Confederacy ► The 16 th Century North American group that came closest to the Aztecs and Inca was the Iroquois in the northeastern woodlands. ► Mohawks ► Oneidas ► Onondagas ► Cayugas ► And Senacas
Iroquois Confederacy ► The groups were bound together by a common Iroquois language. ► Political and organizational skills ► Strong military alliance
Europe Before Exploration ► Renaissance Technological innovations ► Growth of Nation-States England, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland (Netherlands) ► Protestant Reformation and Religious Wars Lutheranism Calvinism ► Predestination Church of England aka Anglican Church Catholic Counter-Reformation
Portuguese and Spanish Voyages ► First Europeans to take the long voyages away from home were the Portuguese and Spanish. ► Both had strong, consolidated governments and militaries. ► Both were situated on the Atlantic Ocean, close to the Strait of Gibraltar that led to the Mediterranean Sea.
Trade dominated by… ► Two kingdoms of Spain and Portugal had to compete with Venice and Genoa in the Mediterranean. ► Venice and Genoa had forged alliances with Muslim states to continue lucrative trade with the East that began with the Crusades. ► Had little interest in exploring possible trade routes across the Atlantic.
Spain and Portugal ► Spain and Portugal were inspired by new cultural and economic forces that were transforming Europe. ► Interested in finding new converts to Christianity. ► Spain was united under Ferdinand and Isabella (devout Catholics) who defeated Granada, the last Muslim kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula.
Spain ► Ferdinand and Isabella also expelled all Jews from Spain if they did not convert to Christianity. ► Their religious devotion ► Coupled with newly political power ► Provided incentive to spread Christianity to the new regions.
Portuguese Explorations ► Portuguese began their explorations in the early 15th Century when they attacked the rich Muslim city of Ceuta ► Situated across from Granada from the Strait of Gibraltar ► Prince Henry, 3 rd Son of Portuguese King, was known as “Henry the Navigator.” ► Started the navigation school for cartographers.
Henry the Navigator
► His navigation school was a magnet for Jewish cartographers who were familiar with Arab maps. ► They improved navigation technology: ► Magnetic compass ► Astrolabe ► Design of new ships (Caravel)
Caravel ► It allowed for navigation of shallow coastal rivers. ► It was also strong enough to withstand storms on the ocean. ► It had two sets of sails to catch ocean breezes for speed and the other set for maneuverability for many years in the Indian Ocean.
Prince Henry’s Students ► Bartholomew Dias and Vasco da Gama set sail to find the tip of Africa and connect to the Indian Ocean. ► Pedro Cabral by 1500 sailed too far west and reached South American coast by mistake. ► Pedro Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal, its one possession in the New World.
Spanish Exploration ► Genoese mariner, Christopher Columbus, convinced Ferdinand and Isabella to sponsor a voyage across the Atlantic. ► He was turned down by the Genoese and Portuguese governments. ► Arrived in the Americas in ► Made three voyages between 1492 and 1498.
Columbus ► Although he reached the coast of South America, he thought he had reached Asia. ► Would be named “America” after Amerigo Vespucci, a later explorer sponsored by Spain and Portugal.
Treaty of Tordesillas ► Although both kingdoms of Portugal and Spain sent explorations in different directions, they began after Columbus’s first voyage. ► Soon began to argue about who controlled the newly discovered lands. ► Looked to Catholic Church for guidance.
New Imaginary Line ► In 1493, Pope Alexander VI endorsed an imaginary line drawn through the Atlantic from the North to South Pole. ► Boundary for Spanish land claims west of the line. ► 1513 Ferdinand Magellan was commissioned by Spain to set sail westward, through the Americas, cross the Pacific and back home again. ►
European Colonization ► Columbus in 1492 ► Relations with natives Spain ► Encomienda system ► Bartolome de las Casas New Laws England France
Encomienda System ► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zh_syC s0Pz8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zh_syC s0Pz8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zh_syC s0Pz8 ► 4:10 minutes ► Encomienda System: Licenses to exact labor and tribute from the natives in specific areas (Similar to feudalism) ► Bartolome de las Casas: Against conditions of treatment of Native Americans.
Bartolome de las Casas ► Spanish Friar who was opposed to mistreatment of indigenous population in the Americas. ► Wrote: A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. ► He described extensive account of torture, murder, and mutilation against natives by the Spaniards.
Asiento System ► The Asiento, or license to sell slaves, was often sold to foreign merchants rather than Spanish. It went to whoever was prepared to pay most money to get the license. Often this meant that Portuguese, Dutch, German, British or Genoese merchants were supplying slaves to the Spanish colonies.
Asiento System (con’t) ► From 1550 to 1595, the official records show that 36,300 enslaved Africans were imported into the Spanish-owned parts of South America. The number was probably much higher, as more were smuggled in by slave traders who did not hold a license to supply slaves.
1492 Discussion ► Watch a short clip of 1492 (summer assignment) ► Discussion of movie
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Global Exchanges ► Once European ships were regularly crossing the Atlantic and into the Pacific Ocean, sustained contact had profound implications. ► The Columbian Exchange was global diffusion of crops, other plants, human beings, animals and diseases that took place after exploratory voyages between the late 15 th and 16 th Centuries.
Diseases ► High death rates of the Amerindians as a result of contact with Europeans. Small pox Influenza Typhus Measles Diphtheria
Death Rates ► Death rates were highest in densely populated areas: Aztec and Inca Empires ► Europeans were also dying of malaria, found in the Caribbean islands.
Positive Consequences of Columbian Exchange ► Increased population overall: Supplies of food increased Wider access of an assortment of nutrients New animals were domesticated from Europe: Pigs, horses, cattle and sheep multiplied.