2Big Picture: Development of a New Nation 1450-1791 1. The two hemispheres of the world were at last joined in sustained contact, with the North American colonies integral to the process. As a result, world trade networks greatly enlarged, creating a wealth and power base that the new Americans used to forge a new identity.
3Development (Continued) 2. The natural environment of North America changed drastically, as imported domestic animals and European customs altered native farming habits.Much land was cleared for farming, and population compositions changed as disease spread to previously isolated people.
4Development (Con’t)3. Economic changes in North America were numerous, as slavery and other forced labor systems expanded into the new world to become central to its economic activities.
5Development (Con’t)4. The new American identity was based on a growing sense of separation from Europe, a process that created the unity necessary to become a nation.However, that identity also developed with social, economic, and political divisions in place that later created serious issues that nearly ripped the country apart.
6Development (Con’t)5. Political experiments created political structures different from those in Europe, although the English influence on their formation was profound.
7Pre-Columbian Societies Until the late 15th Century C. E., developing civilizations in the Americas were almost completely cut off from those in the Eastern Hemisphere.Agriculture was independently inventedCultural contacts took place within the geographical boundaries of North and South America.
8Crossing the Land Bridge The crossing of the land bridge from Northern Asia to Alaska is widely accepted.Although estimates of when the first migrations took place range from 35,000 years ago to about 15,000 years ago.
12Native Culture and Lifestyle NomadicSedentaryEastern WoodlandsHopewellIroquoisMohawks, Oneidas, Onodagas, Cayugas, SenecasAlgonquianMississippianGreat PlainsSiouxSouthwestAnasazi/PuebloCahokia, c CE
13Great Plains native lifestyle Great Serpent Mount - OhioKincaid - IllinoisCliff Palace – Colorado
14The People of North America In contrast to Mesoamerica and the Andes region in South America, no major civilization controlled large amounts of land in North America.There were a variety of different languages and lifestyles.Some were nomadic-hunting bison or deer. In the Arctic- hunted whale, seals, and walruses.
15Hunters/GatherersSome were gatherers of berries, roots, grasses to supplement fish or meat.Anasazi people used river water to irrigate crops of maize, beans, squash, and sunflowers.
16CahokiaThe largest and most important mound-builder settlement of this period was at Cahokia, located near modern-day East St. Louis, Illinois and the Mississippi River Valley.A number of different groups lived in the area who built enormous earthen mounds for ceremonies and platforms for dwellings and burial sites.
171450-North and South America From Alaska to South America, nomadism was common, as was subsistence agriculture.Diverse cultures developed as well as different language groups.Extended families lived together in villages.Matrilineal descent-mothers, married daughters, and daughters’ husbands lived close by.
181450 ContinuedIn contrast, the nomadic people of the Great Plains generally traced their lineage through patrilineal descent.In both types of society, however, men had the power and authority.Although equality appears to have existed in the hunting and gathering societies.
19Iroquois ConfederacyThe 16th Century North American group that came closest to the Aztecs and Inca was the Iroquois in the northeastern woodlands.MohawksOneidasOnondagasCayugasAnd Senacas
20Iroquois ConfederacyThe groups were bound together by a common Iroquois language.Political and organizational skillsStrong military alliance
21Europe Before Exploration RenaissanceTechnological innovationsGrowth of Nation-StatesEngland, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland (Netherlands)Protestant Reformation and Religious WarsLutheranismCalvinismPredestinationChurch of England aka Anglican ChurchCatholic Counter-Reformation
22Portuguese and Spanish Voyages First Europeans to take the long voyages away from home were the Portuguese and Spanish.Both had strong, consolidated governments and militaries.Both were situated on the Atlantic Ocean, close to the Strait of Gibraltar that led to the Mediterranean Sea.
23Trade dominated by…Two kingdoms of Spain and Portugal had to compete with Venice and Genoa in the Mediterranean.Venice and Genoa had forged alliances with Muslim states to continue lucrative trade with the East that began with the Crusades.Had little interest in exploring possible trade routes across the Atlantic.
24Spain and PortugalSpain and Portugal were inspired by new cultural and economic forces that were transforming Europe.Interested in finding new converts to Christianity.Spain was united under Ferdinand and Isabella (devout Catholics) who defeated Granada, the last Muslim kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula.
25SpainFerdinand and Isabella also expelled all Jews from Spain if they did not convert to Christianity.Their religious devotionCoupled with newly political powerProvided incentive to spread Christianity to the new regions.
26Portuguese Explorations Portuguese began their explorations in the early 15th Century when they attacked the rich Muslim city of CeutaSituated across from Granada from the Strait of GibraltarPrince Henry, 3rd Son of Portuguese King, was known as “Henry the Navigator.”Started the navigation school for cartographers.
28Henry the NavigatorHis navigation school was a magnet for Jewish cartographers who were familiar with Arab maps.They improved navigation technology:Magnetic compassAstrolabeDesign of new ships (Caravel)
30Caravel It allowed for navigation of shallow coastal rivers. It was also strong enough to withstand storms on the ocean.It had two sets of sails to catch ocean breezes for speed and the other set for maneuverability for many years in the Indian Ocean.
31Prince Henry’s Students Bartholomew Dias and Vasco da Gama set sail to find the tip of Africa and connect to the Indian Ocean.Pedro Cabral by 1500 sailed too far west and reached South American coast by mistake.Pedro Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal, its one possession in the New World.
32Spanish ExplorationGenoese mariner, Christopher Columbus, convinced Ferdinand and Isabella to sponsor a voyage across the Atlantic .He was turned down by the Genoese and Portuguese governments.Arrived in the Americas in 1492.Made three voyages between 1492 and 1498.
33ColumbusAlthough he reached the coast of South America, he thought he had reached Asia.Would be named “America” after Amerigo Vespucci, a later explorer sponsored by Spain and Portugal.
34Treaty of TordesillasAlthough both kingdoms of Portugal and Spain sent explorations in different directions, they began after Columbus’s first voyage.Soon began to argue about who controlled the newly discovered lands.Looked to Catholic Church for guidance.
35New Imaginary LineIn 1493, Pope Alexander VI endorsed an imaginary line drawn through the Atlantic from the North to South Pole.Boundary for Spanish land claims west of the line.1513 Ferdinand Magellan was commissioned by Spain to set sail westward, through the Americas, cross the Pacific and back home again.
36European Colonization Columbus in 1492Relations with nativesSpainEncomienda systemBartolome de las CasasNew LawsEnglandFrance
37Encomienda System https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zh_syCs0Pz8 4:10 minutesEncomienda System: Licenses to exact labor and tribute from the natives in specific areas (Similar to feudalism)Bartolome de las Casas: Against conditions of treatment of Native Americans.
38Bartolome de las CasasSpanish Friar who was opposed to mistreatment of indigenous population in the Americas.Wrote: A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies.He described extensive account of torture, murder, and mutilation against natives by the Spaniards.
39Asiento SystemThe Asiento, or license to sell slaves, was often sold to foreign merchants rather than Spanish. It went to whoever was prepared to pay most money to get the license. Often this meant that Portuguese, Dutch, German, British or Genoese merchants were supplying slaves to the Spanish colonies.
40Asiento System (con’t) From 1550 to 1595, the official records show that 36,300 enslaved Africans were imported into the Spanish-owned parts of South America. The number was probably much higher, as more were smuggled in by slave traders who did not hold a license to supply slaves.
411492 Discussion Watch a short clip of 1492 (summer assignment) Discussion of movie
45Global ExchangesOnce European ships were regularly crossing the Atlantic and into the Pacific Ocean, sustained contact had profound implications.The Columbian Exchange was global diffusion of crops, other plants, human beings, animals and diseases that took place after exploratory voyages between the late 15th and 16th Centuries.
46DiseasesHigh death rates of the Amerindians as a result of contact with Europeans.Small poxInfluenzaTyphusMeaslesDiphtheria
47Death Rates Death rates were highest in densely populated areas: Aztec and Inca EmpiresEuropeans were also dying of malaria, found in the Caribbean islands.
48Positive Consequences of Columbian Exchange Increased population overall:Supplies of food increasedWider access of an assortment of nutrientsNew animals were domesticated from Europe:Pigs, horses, cattle and sheep multiplied.