Presentation on theme: "Europeans Explore the East KEY IDEA Driven by the desire for wealth and Christian converts, Europeans began an age of exploration."— Presentation transcript:
Europeans Explore the East KEY IDEA Driven by the desire for wealth and Christian converts, Europeans began an age of exploration.
Europeans Begin to Explore For many centuries, Europeans had been largely, though not completely, isolated from contact with people from other lands. That changed in the 1400s. One reason for this change was that Europeans hoped to gain new sources of wealth. The three primary motives for exploration: God – Glory - Gold
Factors That Encourage Exploration: God Catholic Church was losing members to the Protestant faith New souls = new tax base for church Catholic nations lead the way: Jesuits from Spain and Portugal Goal: create a Christian land across the sea.
Factors That Encourage Exploration: Glory Chance to become wildly famous Should an expedition get all the way to Asia, all involved would be remembered Land, power, title all await any explorer who brings glory to the sponsor
Factors That Encourage Exploration: Gold Great hordes of gold await in the new world Legends of King Solomon’s Mines and the golden city of El Dorado are on the front of every explorer’s mind A caravel of treasure for the sponsor means great wealth for you!
The Caravel Advances in technology made these voyages possible. A new kind of ship, the caravel, was stronger built than earlier ships. It had triangle-shaped sails that allowed it to sail against the wind.
The Magnetic Compass Ships could now travel far out into the ocean. The magnetic compass allowed sea captains to better stay on course.
Portugal Leads the Way The first nation to develop and use these new technologies was Portugal. That nation’s Prince Henry was deeply committed to the idea of exploring beyond the seas. In 1419, he started a school of navigation where sea captains, mapmakers, and navigators could meet, learn, and exchange ideas. Prince Henry the Navigator
The Portuguese Explore Africa Over the next few decades, Portuguese captains sailed farther and farther down the west coast of Africa.
Bartolomeu Dias In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias led the first voyage to reach the southern tip of Africa. Dias’ motives were “to serve God and his majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and grow rich as all men desire to do.” Bartolomeu Dias
Vasco da Gama Finds a Route to Asia Ten years later, Vasco da Gama led a ship 27,000 miles around Africa, to India, and back. The Portuguese had found a sea route to Asia. Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus The Spanish, meanwhile, had plans of their own. Italian sailor Christopher Columbus convinced the king Ferdinand and queen Isabella that he could reach Asia by sailing west. In 1492, instead of landing in Asia, Columbus touched land in the islands of the Americas, land unknown to Europeans. Christopher Columbus
Columbus’ Voyages Pave the Way Explorer Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal Vasco Nunez Balboa voyages to the Pacific Ocean Ferdinand Magellan is the first to sail around the globe (kind of) Primary goal: build colonies!
Treaty of Tordesillas: The Line of Demarcation Spain and Portugal argued over which nation had the rights to the land in the New World In 1494, they signed the Treaty of Tordesillas. It divided the world into two areas. Portugal won the right to control the eastern parts and Spain the western parts— including most of the Americas.
Portugal’s Trading Empire Portugal moved quickly to make the new Indian Ocean route pay off. In 1509, it defeated a Muslim fleet off the coast of India and thus became the master of Indian trade. Soon, it captured cities in India and the Malay peninsula. Portugal now had power over islands that were so rich in desirable spices that they were called the Spice Islands.
Spain Builds an American Empire Cortez explores Mexico and conquers the Aztec Empire with his small conquistador militia Pizzaro explores Peru and conquers the Inca Empire Disease and slavery decimate the Native populations of Central and South America
Spain Expands Its Influence The Spanish advance into North America Spanish missionaries follow the soldiers and establish Catholic Missions. Governments follow the encomienda system. Native American peoples resist Spanish colonization in a variety of ways
European Nations Settle North America French colonize the St. lawrence and Mississippi River valleys – begin the fur trade English settle in at Jamestown and seek religious freedom; 15 years later, Pilgrims head to Plymouth colony. Dutch encourage a diverse population in New Netherland
The Fight for North America The English drive the Dutch from New Netherland and rename the colony New York Seven Years’ War in Europe spills over into conflicts between French and English colonists in North America English defeat the French and rule Eastern North America
Native American Reaction French and Dutch fur traders cooperate, at least at first, with native American peoples English colonization sparks conflict with native Americans over land and religion Metacom engages the English in King Phillip’s War (epic fail) Smallpox, measles, and influenza continue to decimate the Native populations