Presentation on theme: "W HAT ARE THEY ? An earthquake is a sudden release in earth’s crust where seismic waves are created. They can be the smallest movements to the largest."— Presentation transcript:
W HAT ARE THEY ? An earthquake is a sudden release in earth’s crust where seismic waves are created. They can be the smallest movements to the largest forms of destruction on earth’s surface. Seismometers, seismographs, the Richter scale, and the Mercalli scale are all used to measure the power and intensity of the earthquake and the seismic waves produced by the earthquake.
M ORE A BOUT T HEM
F AULTS Strike slip~ the plates slide past each other. Normal~ the hanging wall falls below the footwall. Thrust~ the footwall falls below the hanging wall.
B OUNDARIES Convergent Boundary : When the plates move together. Divergent Boundary : When the plates move apart. Transform Boundary : When the plates slide past each other.
T HE B ASICS The focus is the center of the earthquake. Here, the seismic waves are produced. The fault line is on the line of the focus. The epicenter is the point directly above the focus on earth’s surface.
P ROTECTION /A WARENESS During an earthquake: ~Get away from all bookshelves, vanities, entertainment centers, or all other possible pieces of furniture that could easily fall on you. ~If you are outside, try to move to an open space. ~If you are driving, slowly drive and park by the side of the road. Move away from trees, bridges, and other tall structures. ~If you are cooking, turn off the stove immediately.
R ECENT T RAGEDIES In 2010, Haiti was struck with a 7.0 earthquake, and 52 aftershocks with at least a 4.5 magnitude. About 3 million people were affected by the quake, and an estimated 100k-159k people died. In 2011, Japan was struck with a 8.9 earthquake, that triggered a tsunami with 30 foot high waves. There were about 50 aftershocks, most reaching a magnitude of 6.0. About 17,000 people died, about 4,000 people were injured, and many are still missing today. An estimated 265 people died from the shaking itself.
T HE R ING OF F IRE The Ring of Fire is made up of 452 volcanos and home to 90% of earth’s earthquakes. 81% of earth’s most powerful earthquakes also take place here. It is made up of many different plates.