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Earthquakes: vibrations through earth’s crust – Occur when rocks under stress slip or shift along a fault Normally, rocks are pressed together tightly.

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Presentation on theme: "Earthquakes: vibrations through earth’s crust – Occur when rocks under stress slip or shift along a fault Normally, rocks are pressed together tightly."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Earthquakes: vibrations through earth’s crust – Occur when rocks under stress slip or shift along a fault Normally, rocks are pressed together tightly = not moving Or “locked”

3 Elastic Rebound Theory Rocks along each side of a fault are moving slowly. If the rock is “locked”, then stress will increase When the rock is stressed beyond its capacity, the rocks separate, or fracture, at the weakest point, and then they spring back to their original position – As rocks move they create vibrations, called Seismic Waves

4 Aftershocks: series of tremors caused by other areas adjusting to stress of the initial earthquake

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6 Focus: place where slip first occurs Epicenter: The point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus.

7 Seismic waves radiate out in all directions from the focus.

8 Major Earthquake Zones

9 Where do earthquakes occur? Along or near the edges of lithospheric plates Journal: Why do think that earthquakes occur in these areas? Explain the cause of the earthquakes!

10 Fault Zones Groups of interconnected faults along a plate boundary

11 6.2 Recording Earthquakes Seismograph: instrument that detects and records seismic waves

12 Types of Waves The different types of energy waves shake the ground in different ways and also travel through the earth at different velocities.

13 Types of Waves P wave: The fastest wave, and therefore the first to arrive at a given location. P wave compression wave, alternately compresses and expands material in the same direction it is traveling. S wave : is slower than the P wave and arrives next S wave shakes the ground up and down and back and forth perpendicular to the direction it is traveling. Surface waves: follow the P and S waves. Surface waves

14 Locating an Earthquake Scientists analyze the difference between the arrival of P and S waves.

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16 Journal: What instrument measures earthquakes???

17 Earthquake Measurement Magnitude: Measure of energy released – Described as ground motion – Measured using the RICHTER SCALE

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19 Mercalli Scale: describes intensity, or amount of damage an earthquake causes. – Scale I – XII

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21 Journal: Describe the difference between the Richter Scale and the Mercalli Scale.

22 Reading an Earthquake Wave Graph IN CLASS


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