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28.2 Movement of the Moon Std 1F: Know the evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had in shaping the surface of planets. Objective.

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Presentation on theme: "28.2 Movement of the Moon Std 1F: Know the evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had in shaping the surface of planets. Objective."— Presentation transcript:

1 28.2 Movement of the Moon Std 1F: Know the evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had in shaping the surface of planets. Objective 1: Describe the shape of the moon’s orbit around Earth. Objective 2: Explain why eclipses occur. Objective 3: Describe the appearance of four phases of the moon. Objective 4: Explain how the movements of the moon affect tides on Earth.

2 Chapter 28 The Moon’s Elliptical Orbit The moon’s orbit around Earth =ellipseThe moon’s orbit around Earth =ellipse the distance between Earth and the moon varies the distance between Earth and the moon varies apogee -the point at which the satellite is farthest from Earthapogee -the point at which the satellite is farthest from Earth –moon is farthest from Earth perigee - the point at which the satellite is closest to Earthperigee - the point at which the satellite is closest to Earth the moon is closest to Earth the moon is closest to Earth

3 The Earth-Moon System

4 Moonrise and Moonset The moon appears to rise and set at Earth’s horizon because of Earth’s rotation on its axis.The moon appears to rise and set at Earth’s horizon because of Earth’s rotation on its axis. The moon rises and sets 50 minutes later each night becauseThe moon rises and sets 50 minutes later each night because –Earth’s rotation –Moon’s revolution.

5 Lunar Rotation The moon’s revolution around Earth and its rotation on its axis take the same amount of time.The moon’s revolution around Earth and its rotation on its axis take the same amount of time. Observers on Earth always see the same side of the moon.Observers on Earth always see the same side of the moon. The part of the moon illuminated by sunlight changes as the moon orbits Earth.The part of the moon illuminated by sunlight changes as the moon orbits Earth.

6 Eclipses Eclipse - an event in which the shadow of one celestial body falls on anotherEclipse - an event in which the shadow of one celestial body falls on another Bodies orbiting the sun cast long shadows into space.Bodies orbiting the sun cast long shadows into space. Shadows cast by Earth and the moon have two parts:Shadows cast by Earth and the moon have two parts: –Umbra- the inner, cone-shaped part of the shadow –Penumbra - outer part of the shadow

7 Total Solar Eclipses Solar eclipse - the passing of the moon between Earth and the sun; during a solar eclipse, the shadow of the moon falls on Earth.Solar eclipse - the passing of the moon between Earth and the sun; during a solar eclipse, the shadow of the moon falls on Earth. During a total solar eclipseDuring a total solar eclipse –The sun’s light is completely blocked by the moon. –The umbra falls on the area of Earth that lies directly in line with the moon and the sun.

8 Partial Solar Eclipse Outside the umbra, but within the penumbra, people see a partial solar eclipse.Outside the umbra, but within the penumbra, people see a partial solar eclipse. –The penumbra falls on the area that immediately surrounds the umbra.

9 Effects of Solar Eclipses During a total solar eclipseDuring a total solar eclipse –Sunlight that is not eclipsed by the moon shows the normally invisible outer layers of the sun’s atmosphere ( diamond-ring effect) If the moon is at or near apogee during a solar eclipse, the moon’s umbra does not reach Earth.If the moon is at or near apogee during a solar eclipse, the moon’s umbra does not reach Earth. –This causes an “annual eclipse” - a thin ring of sunlight is visible around the outer edge of the moon.

10 Lunar Eclipses Lunar eclipse - the passing of the moon through Earth’s shadow at full moonLunar eclipse - the passing of the moon through Earth’s shadow at full moon Lunar Eclipses videoLunar Eclipses videoLunar Eclipses videoLunar Eclipses video

11 A lunar eclipse - Earth is positioned between the moon and the sunA lunar eclipse - Earth is positioned between the moon and the sun –Earth’s shadow crosses the lighted half of the moon.

12 Partial lunar eclipse - When only part of the moon passes into Earth’s umbraPartial lunar eclipse - When only part of the moon passes into Earth’s umbra Penumbral eclipse - When the entire moon passes through Earth’s penumbraPenumbral eclipse - When the entire moon passes through Earth’s penumbra

13 Solar and Lunar Eclipses

14 Phases of the Moon phase - the change in the illuminated area of one celestial body as seen from another,celestial body; phases of the moon are caused by the changing positions of Earth, the sun, and the moonphase - the change in the illuminated area of one celestial body as seen from another,celestial body; phases of the moon are caused by the changing positions of Earth, the sun, and the moon As the moon revolves around EarthAs the moon revolves around Earth –different amounts of the near side of the moon are lighted. The shape of the visible part of the moon varies.The shape of the visible part of the moon varies. The varying shapes are called phases.The varying shapes are called phases.

15 Waxing Phases of the Moon Waxing - When the size of the lighted part of the moon is increasingWaxing - When the size of the lighted part of the moon is increasing Waxing-crescent phase - When a sliver of the moon’s near side is illuminatedWaxing-crescent phase - When a sliver of the moon’s near side is illuminated 1st-quarter phase - When a waxing moon becomes a semicircle,1st-quarter phase - When a waxing moon becomes a semicircle, Waxing-gibbous phase - When the lighted part of the moon’s near side is larger than a semicircleWaxing-gibbous phase - When the lighted part of the moon’s near side is larger than a semicircle Full moon- the entire near side of the moon is illuminated by the light of the sun.Full moon- the entire near side of the moon is illuminated by the light of the sun.

16 Waning Phases of the Moon Waning -When the lighted part of the near side of the moon appears to decrease in sizeWaning -When the lighted part of the near side of the moon appears to decrease in size Waning-gibbous phase- when the moon is waning, but is still larger than a semicircleWaning-gibbous phase- when the moon is waning, but is still larger than a semicircle Waning-crescent phase - When only a sliver of the near side is visibleWaning-crescent phase - When only a sliver of the near side is visible Last-quarter phase - When the moon is waning, and it is a semicircleLast-quarter phase - When the moon is waning, and it is a semicircle New moon - no lighted area of the moon is visible from Earth.New moon - no lighted area of the moon is visible from Earth.

17 Phases of the Moon

18 Tides on Earth Tidal bulges (Bulges in Earth’s oceans) - form because the moon’s gravitational pull on Earth decreases with distance from the moonTidal bulges (Bulges in Earth’s oceans) - form because the moon’s gravitational pull on Earth decreases with distance from the moon –the ocean on Earth’s near side is pulled toward the moon with the greatest force Because Earth rotates, tides occur in a regular rhythm at any given point on Earth’s surface each day.Because Earth rotates, tides occur in a regular rhythm at any given point on Earth’s surface each day.

19 Causes of Tides


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