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Section 4 Empires of China and India Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Life in Gupta India A Gupta Golden Age Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 4 Empires of China and India Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Life in Gupta India A Gupta Golden Age Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 4 Empires of China and India Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Life in Gupta India A Gupta Golden Age Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Buddhism as a World Religion Indian Society and Culture

2 Section 4 Empires of China and India Reading Focus What features defined Indian society and trade during the Gupta period? What were major cultural and scientific achievements of the Gupta golden age? Main Idea The strength, prosperity, and stability of the Gupta Empire helped lead to a golden age in Indian society, trade, and culture. Indian Society and Culture

3 Section 4 Empires of China and India Gupta, Tamil kingdoms in southern India traded actively by sea Indian sailors used seasonal winds to reach foreign markets across Arabian Sea Sea trade also between India and Southeast Asia Played key role in cultural diffusion of Indian culture Sea Trade Indian civilization flourished during Gupta empire Trade increased, economy strengthened, cities prospered Overland routes like the Silk Roads linked India to other markets Indian merchants traded ivory, cashmere, cotton, spices for Chinese silk, Roman ceramics Growth of Trade Life in Gupta India

4 Section 4 Empires of China and India Simple Lives Most Gupta people led simple lives in small villages Majority of village dwellers, farmers Most villages self-sufficient, but trade between villages occurred People from different villages got together for religious festivals, other events Daily Life Growth of trade strengthened economy; Gupta Empire’s cities reflected prosperity Use of money became more common; new group of bankers, moneylenders emerged Luxury, pleasure for urban rich; enjoyed music, poetry, art

5 Section 4 Empires of China and India Social structure Most people in ancient India belonged to specific caste Castes determined jobs, interaction with others Number grew, developed rules Gender Also shaped Indian society Men had more rights than women Patriarchal society, similar to China Legal codes Legal codes also defined people’s roles Laws of Manu, compiled between 200 BC, AD 200 Defined proper behavior Laws of Manu Female child subject to father, female youth to husband Men expected to treat women with respect Abused women could leave Life in Gupta India

6 Section 4 Empires of China and India Identify Cause and Effect How did trade affect city life in Gupta India? Answer(s): cities prospered, shops and markets bustled, money became common, culture stressed luxury and pleasure for urban wealth

7 Section 4 Empires of China and India Like the Han period in China, the Gupta period was a golden age of cultural and scientific achievements. Many great works created during Gupta period One of greatest writers, Kalidasa –Poet, playwright –Wrote plays for royal court –Sakuntala, most famous –Play combines myth, humor, court life, lyric poetry Sanskrit Literature Another popular work of period Five Books, collection of stories meant to teach lessons “The good and bad of given schemes Wise thought must first reveal The stupid heron saw his chicks Provide a mongoose meal.” Warning to think before acting Panchatantra A Gupta Golden Age

8 Section 4 Empires of China and India Religious Much of art, architecture of Gupta period religious Magnificent Hindu, Buddhist temples built across India Hindu temples: huge towers, covered with carvings Most spectacular architecture Temples, monuments carved out of rock and cliff faces Most famous, cave temples at Ajanta and Ellora Intricately carved columns; include halls, rooms, windows Buddhist temples Included stupas, temples with domed roofs Built to house sacred items from life of Buddha Like Hindu temples, covered with detailed carvings Art and Architecture

9 Section 4 Empires of China and India Great works of art Paintings of the time often portray beautiful, graceful Indians wearing fine jewelry, stylish clothing Many of finest paintings found in Buddhist and Hindu temples Statues Made for temples Buddhist temples, statues of Buddha, kings Hindu temples, statues of Siva, Vishnu, other devas Temple paintings Hindu artists decorated walls, entrances with devas, aspects of Brahman Buddhists covered plaster walls, ceilings with scenes from life of Buddha Some of finest examples of Buddhist art found in Ajanta cave temples Art and Architecture

10 Section 4 Empires of China and India Metallurgy Ancient Indians pioneers of science of working with metals Indian iron valued for hardness, purity Gupta metalworkers built famous Iron Pillar, near Delhi Iron Pillar is resistant to rust Still being studied by scholars today Gupta scholars most advanced mathematicians of their day Developed modern math system First to use concept, symbol of zero Hindu-Arabic numerals; created by Indians, brought to Europe by Arabs Mathematics Ancient Indians quite advanced Made medicines from plants Knew how to inject small amounts of viruses to protect against disease Doctors could perform surgery, repair broken bones, treat wounds Medical Science Science and Technology

11 Section 4 Empires of China and India Science and Technology Astronomy Indians identified seven planets in solar system Could predict eclipses of sun, moon Aryabhata, one of most famous Indian astronomers –Correctly argued that Earth rotates on axis, revolves around sun –Knew Earth was sphere, calculated circumference with remarkable accuracy

12 Section 4 Empires of China and India Find the Main Idea Why do historians consider the Gupta period to have been a golden age in the history of ancient India? Answer(s): significant cultural contributions, Sanskrit, magnificent carvings, statues of Buddha, wall paintings; advancements in mathematics, medicine, and astronomy

13 Section 4 Empires of China and India

14 Section 4 Empires of China and India Video The Impact of Buddhism as a World Religion Click above to play the video.


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