2 IndustrializationIndustrialization is the development of industry on a grand scale in a country or region.Because of mechanization, production of goods and refining of raw materials could occur on a large scale.
3 IndustrializationFactories set themselves up along city centres (usually close to waterway or railway systems). Unskilled labour was needed and people responded. People moved to find work.The first phase ( )and second phase (c ) of industrialization led to growth of cities, known as Urbanization.
4 What is Urbanization?Urbanization is the movement of people from the rural areas or countryside to urban centres or cities.Social Consequences of Rapid Urbanization inadequate and overcrowded housing, illiteracy, poverty, pollution, and poor sanitation, disease and high childhood mortality rates .
6 How did the role of the state change between 1929 and 1980? State: of or pertaining to the central civil government or authority.AFTER WW I:1920’s: industrial overproduction (optimistic boom overflow from the end of WWI).Businesses left with a surplus of goods they could not sell.People panicked! Stockholders tried to sell company shares and values of stock plummeted.Oct. 24th, 1929 “The Crash”The modernization of Québec society 13 Determine elements of continuity and changes 14 Establish facts 15 Establish connections between facts
7 How did the role of the state change between 1929 and 1980? THE GREAT DEPRESSION (1930’s)- Major economic crisis.- Felt throughout North America.- Many businessesforced to close =high unemployment.Destitute family returning to Saskatoon from the north during Great Depression (courtesy Glenbow Archives).
8 How did the role of the state change between 1929 and 1980? Canada’s politicians at first believed in economic liberalism: leave the economy alone and it will regain its balance.THEY WERE WRONG.The state intervened more and more in economic and social affairs.
9 The Government had to intervene and institute emergency measures such as: Relief vouchers: exchange for food, clothing, wood/coal for heating.Launched Public Works: all levels of gov’t created jobs like construction and maintenance for roads, bridges, etc.Colonization Programs: Encouraged those out of work to move to far-reaching destinations within Canada to settle and cultivate the land through farmingReduced Trade Tariffs: Canada agreed with Britain, other commonwealth nations and the US to not pay such high tariffs to help the economies recover.
10 Should the State Be Involved? These measures cost the gov’t a lot of money, they went into debt.They had to raise personal and property taxes.Major debates arose on what level of involvement the government should have.Some believed strongly in government intervention (parties created out West, which later became NDP) others did not.
11 Why might this be the case? 1935: Bennet’s “New Deal”Bank of Canada was created to regulate creditUnemployment insurance was createdMinimum wage, old age pension was created.Measures to prevent business monopoliesQuebec nationalists, advocated for decentralization of powers; wanted to move away from federal powers to provincial. They did not believe the federal government should have a role in social services.Why might this be the case?
12 Q: How did the role of the state change between 1929 and 1980? A: The state intervened more and more in economic and social affairs.
13 What Changes Took Place in Quebec between 1960 and 1980? : “Quiet Revolution”Youth Movement: divorce was legalized (1968)Feminist Movement: “equal pay for equal work” plus protection from discrimination (pregnancy in workplace, harassment, etc.)1960: Quebec Government would take over social services, health and education from the Church.Economic, Social, Educational and Political Changes occurred. See P in text book
14 Modernization of Quebec: Women’s Rights What motivated feminist demands during the period from 1929 to 1980?Feminist: advocating social, political, legal, and economic rights for women equal to those of men.
15 What motivated feminist demands? (1929 to 1980) First and Second World War changed the face of Canada’s workforce. -WW I`s conscription crisis as well as the labour shortage during WWII brought women out of the home and into the work force.
16 Picture courtesy: http://www. archives. gov. on Women working at the General Engineering Company (Canada) munitions factory, [ca. 1943]
17 What motivated feminist demands during the period from 1929 to 1980? A: Women wanted to have equal rights as men.This was especially important when they became a key part of the workforce and economy in Canada.
18 Gains made by women in Québec 1929 Legal recognition of women as “persons” (could run for federal office)1940 Québec women win the right to vote in provincial elections (one of the last provinces)1961 First woman elected to the National Assembly1964 Recognition of the legal rights of married women under the regime of separation of property1969 Decriminalization of contraception
19 Modernization of Quebec From 1929 to 1980, Québec society underwent major changes:Technological Developments: Hydro PowerSecularization : The move away from the Church. Separation from Church and State.Union movements: Fighting for rights of workers- fair wages, safer work conditionsAffirmation of Québec’s national identity: To Separate or Not to Separate? Being acknowledged as a nation within Canada.From Document Booklet:
21 Québec government at the time of the 1980 referendum. Issues in Quebec Since 1980Québec government at the time of the 1980 referendum.Referendum: a poll or submission of an issue of public importance to the direct vote of the electorate, or to a club, union, or other group to determine their views on some matter, a vote is then conducted.In Quebec`s case: A referendum was held in 1980 on whether or not Quebec should separate from the rest of Canada and manage its own affairs away from the federal government.
22 Issues in Quebec Since 1980Québec government at the time of the 1980 referendum.Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau ( ; )- From Montreal.Liberal party leaderBelieved strongly in Quebec staying a part of Canada.Made promise to look at the Constitution and make changes if the Quebec population voted `NO`.Issues in Québec society since Establish facts 17 Situate in time and space 18 Determine explanatory factors and consequences
23 Constitution Act, 1982 Canada becomes a sovereign nation that can make changes to Act without Britain`s consent.The constitution was housed in Britain, and therefore needed the Queen in order to make key changes to it. Canadian charter of rights and freedoms was added to it.
24 STILL A DEBATE: Québec’s political status within Canada The Québec government did not sign the Constitution Act of Wanted a few amendments.Quebec wanted special status as a unique province apart from the rest of Canada.Wanted compensation if they pulled out of federal programs such as educational scholarships.Trudeau and the other 10 Premiers ignored this request, and met without Quebec’s Premier.
25 The Debate from 1982 on…Queen Elizabeth II and Canadian Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau sign the new Constitution Act, 1982.The Meech Lake Accord (Mulroney , 1987) – tried to make amendments with Quebec. Provinces voted and it was unsuccessful.Quebec Referendum of 1995 (Parizeau, Bouchard and Dumont)- narrow margin to stay united.Harper publicly acknowledges the Quebecois people forms a nation within Canada, 2011.Docs 2-5 of Part 6 MELS