Presentation on theme: "The Earliest Americans"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Earliest Americans The World Before the Opening of the Atlantic
2 Creation Myths (Stuckey et al 3) According to some northwestern Native American tribes, when the world was young there were only “the trees, the moon, the sun, water, and a few animals.” In this emptiness, the lonely Raven walked along the beach and wished for companions. To Raven’s surprise, a clam emerged from the sand and released a crowd of tiny people. Raven “sang a beautiful song of great joy,” say the northwestern storytellers, for “he had brought the first people to the world.”(Stuckey et al 3)
3 I. The First Migration to America Crossing to the Americas1. during the last Ice Age2. Beringia: a land bridge between Asia and Alaska3. Paleo-Indians: crossed between 50,000 and10,000 B.C.4. hunter-gatherers who made finely crafted stone tools
4 I. The First Migration to America Adapting to a New Climate1. hunter-gatherer societies: first hunted large animals until they became extinct; then hunted smaller mammals and birds as well as gathered edible plants; fishing also2. agrarian societies: developed first in Mesoamerica; domesticated wild plants and animals
6 II. Early Mesoamerican Civilizations the Olmecthe Mayathe Toltecthe Aztecthe Inca
7 III. Early North American Societies The Far North1. The Arctic (very northern Alaska and Canada): fishing and hunting societies; the Inuit and the Aleut2. The Subarctic (the remainder of Alaska and Canada): semi-nomadic hunter- gatherers; the Algonquian
8 III. Early North American Societies The Pacific Coast1. The Northwest Coast (southern Alaska to northern California): fishing, hunting, gathering, trading; made huge red cedar dugouts; built wooden houses; made totems; held potlatches; The Tlingit, Tillamook, Nootka
9 III. Early North American Societies 2. California: hunting, fishing, gathering; lived in family groups or villages; the Pomo, Hupa, Chumash
10 III. Early North American Societies The West and Southwest1. The Plateau (Washington and Oregon): dry, treeless plain; hunting, fishing, gathering; lived in permanent villages: the Nez Perce, the Modoc
11 III. Early North American Societies 2. The Great Basin (desert areas of Nevada and Utah): hunted small fowl, reptiles, and mammals; nomadic family groups; the Shoshoni, the Ute
12 III. Early North American Societies 3. The Southwest (Arizona, New Mexico, Mexico/deserts to evergreen forests): some developed advanced agricultural practices, even irrigation (Pueblo, Pima, Anasazi, Hopi) while others hunted, gathered, and raided (Navajo and Apache); created permanent settlements; dug pit houses, constructed pueblos (built single story or in cliff sides)
14 III. Early North American Societies The Great Plains (stretches from Canada into Texas from Iowa to the Rocky Mountains; mainly grasslands):1. hunter-gatherers relied on the large herds of buffalo and other large animals; used every part of the buffalo; the Blackfoot, the Crow, the Teton Sioux, the Cheyenne
16 III. Early North American Societies 2. agrarian groups built large dome- shaped dwellings of wood and grass; the Wichita, Waco3. matrilineal societies: the Pawnee
17 III. Early North American Societies The East1. The Southeast: lived in villages along river valleys; relied on agriculture but also hunted, gathered and fished; matrilineal; village councils; mound builders; the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole, Natchez
18 III. Early North American Societies 2. the Northeast (from the Mississippi Valley to the Atlantic Ocean from the Great Lakes south to Virginia):a. the Algonquin: far north tribes were semi nomadic, relying mainly on hunting and gathering; southern tribes lived in villages of lodges and wigwams; and lived by agriculture, etc.
20 III. Early North American Societies b. the Iroquois: agrarian; lived in permanent villages of longhouses; women controlled life, including the powerful Iroquois League which waged war or made peace
21 IV. Native Populations Origins 1. no writing 2. learn about natives from archeologists and anthropologists3. human remains have been carbon dated as far back as 16,000 years4. oldest site of human activity found in Chile5. advanced civilizations were in Central and South America6. North American groups were very diversified7. population estimates from 14 to 100 million at Columbus’s arrival
26 IV. Native Populations Periods cont’d 3. Woodland Age, 1,000 B.C. to 800 A.D. :a. Real potteryb. agriculturec. hunting & fishing were supplementald. fish gathering (stone pile with hole in center –men would drive fish to the wall and women would catch them with baskets)e. developed art, religion, skillsf. burials connected to religion
27 IV. Native Populations Periods cont’d 4. Mississippian Period, 800 to 1500 A.D. :a. built mound complexesb. flat topped mounds usually had temples at the top; high status people may have lived on top as well
31 V. Early European Explorations A. The Vikings: a seafaring people from ScandinaviaB. Viking explorers:1. Grimur Kamban: Iceland, 8742. Erik the Red: Greenland, app 9743. Leif Erikson: Vinland, app 1000C. Problems:1. attacks by Native Americans2. too far from homeland
33 Works CitedBrinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey. Vol 1. Boston: McGraw-Hill College, 1999.Stuckey, Sterling, and Linda Kerrigan Salvucci. Call to Freedom: Beginnings to Austin, Texas: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2000.
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