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1.Nervous System Notesheet 2.Neuron Vocabulary 3.Nervous System Web Lab Day 1 and 2 4.Neurons Notes (includes spinal nerve notesheet) 5.Nervous System.

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Presentation on theme: "1.Nervous System Notesheet 2.Neuron Vocabulary 3.Nervous System Web Lab Day 1 and 2 4.Neurons Notes (includes spinal nerve notesheet) 5.Nervous System."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1.Nervous System Notesheet 2.Neuron Vocabulary 3.Nervous System Web Lab Day 1 and 2 4.Neurons Notes (includes spinal nerve notesheet) 5.Nervous System Crossword 6.Quiz 1 7.Central Nervous System 8.Blood-BrainBarrier Article & Summary

3 1.Cell body 2.Nissl substance 3.Neurofibrils 4.Dendrites 5.Axons 6.Axonal terminals 7.Neurotransmitters 8.Synaptic cleft 9.Synapse 10.Myelin 11.Schwann cells 12.Myelin Sheath 13.Neurilemma 14.Nodes of Ranvier 15.Nuclei 16.Ganglia 17.Tracts

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5 Continuous conduction – Unmyelinated neurons Saltatory conduction – Myelinated neurons – Impulse travels faster as it jumps from/to each Node of Ranvier Video Neurotransmitters carry impulses across the synapse from pre-synaptic neurons to post-synaptic neurons Parts 2 and 3

6 Resting Potential – Inside neuron is negative relative to outside – Extracellulary: More Na+ ions – Intracellularly: More K+ ions Action Potential when neurons start firing messages/impulses – A strong enough stimulus causes charge reversal! DEPOLARIZATION – Positive Na+ ions rushing into neuron and K+ out = DEPOLARIZATION! – Repolarization – Repolarization occurs when K+ ions diffuse out of cell after impulse passes restoring overall negativity intracellularly – Neuron cannot conduct another impulse until repolarization is restored Part 8

7 There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves in the PNS that serve the head and the neck. – Only one pair (the vagus nerve) extends to the thoracic and abdominal cavities. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the PNS. – Formed by ventral & dorsal roots of spinal cord. – Named by the region of cord from which they arise. What happens after a spinal nerve is formed? – It divides into dorsal & ventral rami – Dorsal rami serve skin and muscles of posterior trunk – Ventral rami form plexuses (complex nerve networks that serve the limbs, motor and sensory) T1 – T12 spinal nerves – ventral rami form intercostal nerves – Serve muscles between ribs & skin and also anterior/lateral trunk.

8 Embryonic development Embryonic development – Starts out as simple neural tube along length – Anterior end expands by 4 th week = brain – Posterior end becomes spinal cord – Central canal enlarges into four main regions

9 SPINAL CORD SPINAL CORD – 17 inches long – Continuation of brain stem – 2-way communication pathway to/from the brain – Major reflex center – Protected by vertebrae and meninges – 31 pairs of spinal nerves arise from it – Cauda equina (page 227)

10 BRAIN BRAIN – 4 main parts (page 215) 1.Cerebral Hemispheres Divided into lobes each with its own function 2.Diencephalon (interbrain) Thalamus Epithalamus Pineal Body Choroid Plexus Hypothalamus Limbic System Pituitary Gland Mammillary Bodies

11 3. Brain Stem – size of thumb, 3 inches long Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata Reticular Formation 4. Cerebellum – provides precise timing of voluntary muscle activity, controls balance and equilibrium Draw sagittal suture of brain and color and label the parts we have talked about today (page 219)

12 Meninges – connective tissue membranes that cover/protect the brain – Dura Mater – Arachnoid Mater – Pia Mater Cerebrospinal Fluid – continuously circulates in the brain maintaining normal pressure – What? – Formed from? – How can you test it? Blood Brain Barrier (homework)

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