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Blood: a fluid connective tissue composed of

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1 Blood: a fluid connective tissue composed of
Blood Composition Blood: a fluid connective tissue composed of Plasma Formed elements Erythrocytes (red blood cells, or RBCs) Leukocytes (white blood cells, or WBCs) Platelets

2 Blood Composition Hematocrit Percent of blood volume that is RBCs
47% ± 5% for males 42% ± 5% for females

3 • Least dense component
Formed elements Plasma • 55% of whole blood • Least dense component Buffy coat • Leukocytes and platelets • <1% of whole blood Erythrocytes 1 Withdraw blood and place in tube. Centrifuge the blood sample. 2 • 45% of whole blood • Most dense component Figure 17.1

4 Physical Characteristics and Volume
Sticky, opaque fluid Color scarlet to dark red pH 7.35–7.45 38C ~8% of body weight Average volume: 5–6 L for males, and 4–5 L for females

5 Functions of Blood Distribution of ? Protection against Blood loss
Plasma proteins and clot formation Infection Antibodies WBCs defend against foreign invaders

6 Proteins are mostly produced by the liver
Blood Plasma 90% water Proteins are mostly produced by the liver 60% albumin 36% globulins 4% fibrinogen

7 Platelets Erythrocytes Monocyte Neutrophils Lymphocyte Figure 17.2

8 2.5 µm Side view (cut) 7.5 µm Top view Figure 17.3

9 Structural characteristics contribute to gas transport
Erythrocytes Structural characteristics contribute to gas transport Shape—huge surface area >97% hemoglobin No mitochondria No nucleus

10 (a) Hemoglobin consists of globin (two alpha and two beta polypeptide
b Globin chains Heme group a Globin chains (a) Hemoglobin consists of globin (two alpha and two beta polypeptide chains) and four heme groups. (b) Iron-containing heme pigment. Figure 17.4

11 O2 unloading in the tissues
Hemoglobin (Hb) O2 loading in the lungs Produces oxyhemoglobin (ruby red) O2 unloading in the tissues Produces deoxyhemoglobin or reduced hemoglobin (dark red) CO2 loading in the tissues Produces carbaminohemoglobin (carries 20% of CO2 in the blood)

12 Hematopoiesis; blood cell formation
Occurs in red bone marrow, girdle and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

13 Erythropoiesis:red blood cell production
Stem cell Committed cell Developmental pathway Phase 1 Ribosome synthesis Phase 2 Hemoglobin accumulation Phase 3 Ejection of nucleus Proerythro- blast Early erythroblast Late erythroblast Reticulo- cyte Erythro- cyte Hemocytoblast Normoblast Figure 17.5

14 Regulation of Erythropoiesis
Too few RBCs leads to tissue hypoxia Too many RBCs increases blood viscosity Balance depends on Hormonal controls Adequate supplies of iron, amino acids, and B vitamins

15 Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis
Erythropoietin (EPO) Direct stimulus for erythropoiesis Released by kidneys in response to hypoxia Testosterone also enhances EPO production, resulting in higher RBC counts in males

16 Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis
Causes of hypoxia Hemorrhage or increased RBC destruction reduces RBC numbers Insufficient hemoglobin (e.g., iron deficiency) Reduced availability of O2 (e.g., high altitudes)

17 1 5 4 2 3 IMBALANCE Homeostasis: Normal blood oxygen levels Stimulus:
Hypoxia (low blood O2- carrying ability) due to • Decreased RBC count • Decreased amount of hemoglobin • Decreased availability of O2 5 O2- carrying ability of blood increases. IMBALANCE Enhanced erythropoiesis increases RBC count. 4 Kidney (and liver to a smaller extent) releases erythropoietin. 2 3 Erythropoietin stimulates red bone marrow. Figure 17.6

18 Fate and Destruction of Erythrocytes
Life span: 100–120 days Macrophages engulf dying RBCs in spleen Iron is salvaged for reuse Heme is degraded to yellow bilirubin Liver secretes bilirubin (in bile)) into the intestines Degraded pigment leaves the body in feces as stercobilin

19 Figure 17.7 Low O2 levels in blood stimulate
kidneys to produce erythropoietin. 1 Erythropoietin levels rise in blood. 2 Erythropoietin and necessary raw materials in blood promote erythropoiesis in red bone marrow. 3 New erythrocytes enter bloodstream; function about 120 days. 4 Aged and damaged red blood cells are engulfed by macrophages of liver, spleen, and bone marrow; the hemoglobin is broken down. 5 Hemoglobin Heme Globin Bilirubin Iron stored as ferritin, hemosiderin Amino acids Iron is bound to transferrin and released to blood from liver as needed for erythropoiesis. Bilirubin is picked up from blood by liver, secreted into intestine in bile, metabolized to stercobilin by bacteria, and excreted in feces. Circulation Food nutrients, including amino acids, Fe, B12, and folic acid, are absorbed from intestine and enter blood. Raw materials are made available in blood for erythrocyte synthesis. 6 Figure 17.7

20 Erythrocyte Disorders
Anemia: abnormally low O2-carrying capacity A sign rather than a disease itself Blood O2 cannot support normal metabolism Accompanied by fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, and chills

21 Insufficient erythrocytes
Causes of Anemia Insufficient erythrocytes Hemorrhagic anemia: acute or chronic loss of blood Hemolytic anemia: RBCs rupture prematurely Aplastic anemia: destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow

22 Low hemoglobin content
Causes of Anemia Low hemoglobin content Iron-deficiency anemia Secondary result of hemorrhagic anemia or Inadequate intake of iron-containing foods or Impaired iron absorption

23 Causes of Anemia Pernicious anemia Deficiency of vitamin B12
Lack of intrinsic factor needed for absorption of B12 Treated by intramuscular injection of B12

24 Causes of Anemia Sickle-cell anemia
Defective gene codes for abnormal hemoglobin (HbS) Causes RBCs to become sickle shaped in low-oxygen situations

25 (a) Normal erythrocyte has normal hemoglobin amino acid sequence
in the beta chain. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 146 (b) Sickled erythrocyte results from a single amino acid change in the beta chain of hemoglobin. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 146 Figure 17.8

26 Erythrocyte Disorders
Polycythemia: excess of RBCs that increase blood viscosity Results from: Polycythemia—bone marrow cancer Secondary polycythemia—when less O2 is available (high altitude) or when EPO production increases Blood doping

27 Differential WBC count (All total 4800 – 10,800/l) Formed elements
Platelets Granulocytes Neutrophils (50 – 70%) Leukocytes Eosinophils (2 – 4%) Basophils (0.5 – 1%) Erythrocytes Agranulocytes Lymphocytes (25 – 45%) Monocytes (3 – 8%) Figure 17.9

28 Table 17.2 (1 of 2)

29 Table 17.2 (2 of 2)

30 Leukopoiesis Production of WBCs Stimulated by chemical messengers from bone marrow and mature WBCs

31 Figure 17.11 Stem cells Hemocytoblast Myeloid stem cell
Lymphoid stem cell Committed cells Myeloblast Myeloblast Myeloblast Monoblast Lymphoblast Developmental pathway Promyelocyte Promyelocyte Promyelocyte Promonocyte Prolymphocyte Eosinophilic myelocyte Basophilic myelocyte Neutrophilic myelocyte Eosinophilic band cells Basophilic band cells Neutrophilic band cells Eosinophils Basophils Neutrophils Monocytes Lymphocytes (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Agranular leukocytes Some become Granular leukocytes Some become Figure 17.11

32 Leukocyte Disorders Leukopenia Leukemias
Abnormally low WBC count—drug induced Leukemias Cancerous conditions involving WBCs Named according to the abnormal WBC clone involved Myelocytic leukemia involves myeloblasts Lymphocytic leukemia involves lymphocytes Acute leukemia involves blast-type cells and primarily affects children Chronic leukemia is more prevalent in older people

33 Leukemia Bone marrow totally occupied with cancerous leukocytes Immature nonfunctional WBCs in the bloodstream Death caused by internal hemorrhage and overwhelming infections Treatments include irradiation, antileukemic drugs, and stem cell transplants

34 Platelets Form a temporary platelet plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels Circulating platelets are kept inactive and mobile by NO and prostacyclin from endothelial cells of blood vessels

35 Developmental pathway
Stem cell Developmental pathway Hemocyto- blast Promegakaryocyte Megakaryoblast Megakaryocyte Platelets Figure 17.12

36 Fast series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding
Hemostasis Fast series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding Vascular spasm Platelet plug formation Coagulation (blood clotting)

37 Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel Triggers
Vascular Spasm Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel Triggers Direct injury Chemicals released by endothelial cells and platelets Pain reflexes

38 • Smooth muscle contracts, causing vasoconstriction.
Step Vascular spasm 1 • Smooth muscle contracts, causing vasoconstriction. Step Platelet plug formation 2 • Injury to lining of vessel exposes collagen fibers; platelets adhere. Collagen fibers • Platelets release chemicals that make nearby platelets sticky; platelet plug forms. Platelets Step Coagulation 3 • Fibrin forms a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets, forming the clot. Fibrin Figure 17.13

39 PF3 released by aggregated platelets Prothrombin activator
Phase 1 Intrinsic pathway Extrinsic pathway Vessel endothelium ruptures, exposing underlying tissues (e.g., collagen) Tissue cell trauma exposes blood to Platelets cling and their surfaces provide sites for mobilization of factors Tissue factor (TF) XII Ca2+ XIIa XI VII XIa VIIa IX Ca2+ IXa PF3 released by aggregated platelets VIII VIIIa IXa/VIIIa complex TF/VIIa complex X Xa Ca2+ V PF3 Va Prothrombin activator Figure (1 of 2)

40 Phase 2 Phase 3 Prothrombin activator Prothrombin (II) Thrombin (IIa)
Fibrinogen (I) (soluble) Fibrin (insoluble polymer) Ca2+ XIII XIIIa Cross-linked fibrin mesh Figure (2 of 2)

41 Figure 17.15

42 Thromboembolytic Conditions
Prevented by Aspirin Antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2 Heparin Anticoagulant used clinically for pre- and postoperative cardiac care Warfarin Used for those prone to atrial fibrillation

43 Bleeding Disorders Hemophilias include several similar hereditary bleeding disorders Hemophilia A: most common type (77% of all cases); due to a deficiency of factor VIII Hemophilia B: deficiency of factor IX Hemophilia C: mild type; deficiency of factor XI Symptoms include prolonged bleeding, especially into joint cavities Treated with plasma transfusions and injection of missing factors

44 ABO Blood Groups Types A, B, AB, and O Based on the presence or absence of two agglutinogens (A and B) on surface of RBCs Blood may contain anti-A or anti-B antibodies (agglutinins) that act against transfused RBCs with ABO antigens not normally present

45 Table 17.4

46 Rh Blood Groups Anti-Rh antibodies are not spontaneously formed in Rh– individuals Anti-Rh antibodies form if an Rh– individual receives Rh+ blood A second exposure to Rh+ blood will result in a typical transfusion reaction RhoGAM containing anti-Rh can prevent the Rh– mother from becoming sensitized

47 ABO Blood Typing

48 agglutinates with both sera)
Blood being tested Serum Anti-A Anti-B Type AB (contains agglutinogens A and B; agglutinates with both sera) RBCs Type A (contains agglutinogen A; agglutinates with anti-A) Type B (contains agglutinogen B; agglutinates with anti-B) Type O (contains no agglutinogens; does not agglutinate with either serum) Figure 17.16

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