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Curriculum & Assessment for Students with ASD/DD

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Presentation on theme: "Curriculum & Assessment for Students with ASD/DD"— Presentation transcript:

1 Curriculum & Assessment for Students with ASD/DD
SPED , CRN:43483 Sheldon Loman, PhD. Winter 2014 Contact:

2 “Clearing a path for people with special needs clears the path for everyone!”


4 This Afternoon’s Agenda
Why are you here? Student Information Sheet Course Syllabus & Assignments Defining Severe Disabilities Activity: Conceptual Models COACH: A model for educational planning for students with disabilities

5 Why are you here? …specifically, pursuing the career of a special educator?

6 KWL for instructing students with multiple or developmental disabilities
What do you …. KNOW What do you… WANT to know What you… LEARNED

7 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process
Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Person-centered Planning Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Record Review, IEP Review Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Preference Assessment Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Daily Schedule Analysis Task Analyses Other Assessments Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report To inform IEP: PLAAFP, Goals & Objectives, Interventions

8 Course Syllabus & Assignments


10 Who are students with significant disabilities?
In many respects, they are just like everyone else---heterogeneous group of people From every part of society Every ethnic and racial group All socioeconomic levels All faiths

11 When said to have a significant disability it means several things
Moderate, severe, or profound intellectual disability -interaction between intelligence and adaptive behavior (i.e., daily living skills, communication, social skills; Grossman, 1983, Reschly, 1999)

12 2. Disability is present throughout a person’s life
Not like catching the flu Person’s needs are lifelong and do not go away simply because he or she turns a certain age

13 3. Importance of support from other people
Needed for all students, but amplified for students with significant disabilities. 1990’s American Association on Mental Retardation revised intellectual disability based on level of support needed. Intermittent, Limited, Extensive, Pervasive

14 IDEA, 2004… Does not define severe disabilities
13 distinct disability categories Several can reasonably include students considered to have severe disabilities: e.g., autism, deaf-blindness, intellectual disabilities, multiple disabilities, traumatic brain injury. 2007 Change in Terms: intellectual disabilities rather than mental retardation

15 Less than 40 years ago… People with significant disabilities did not have a legal right to attend public schools

16 Meet: Grace 6th grader, 12 years old
Lives at home with her family: Mom, Dad & 2 high school brothers Recently entered neighborhood school She has a cognitive impairment She communicates wants/needs through gestures, pushing, screaming, & crying.

17 Meet: Jamar 10th grade, 15 years old English is his second language
Living in his 6th foster family with 4 other foster siblings. Loves sports & music Has difficulty with memory, writing, & organization due to a traumatic brain injury Tries to get friends by teasing, interrupting, and inappropriate proximity

18 Meet: Earl Last year of school, 20 yrs old
Wants to work, get his own apartment, & manage his own bank account His mother is the primary advocate for his needs. Performs well when provided with choices. Communicates mostly with gestures Augmentative communication systems were unsuccessfully implemented at school Has difficulty following directions at school -- if “pushed” to do things, he sometimes hits or pushes others (safety concerns)

19 Horner (2011)

20 Think of a student that is diagnosed as having a developmental disability
What supports does/will this student receive? How are these supports determined? Who is involved in this determination?

21 Intensive Needs Usually Evident in All Areas of Life (Life-long)
Supports must: Address all contexts, people, situations related to student behavior (Contextual Fit) Think outside the “box” OR School Walls. Involve family, professionals, community agencies outside of the school


23 Schools continue to struggle to support students with intensive needs (Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Office of Special Education Programs [OSEP], 2002; Rose & Gallup, 2005; Wagner et al, 2006) These students’ needs are often complex & confounded with numerous dynamic variables: Health condition Home/family situation Schooling history (failure/mobility) Socioeconomic status Culture Other variables….

24 Left unchecked interfering behaviors negatively affect one’s quality of life:
Unsuccessful social relationships, Social isolation, Restrictive educational settings, Limited independent work opportunities (Dunlap & Carr, 2007)

25 Need for “One Voice”…. Fragmented supports that are not linked across systems… Not based on function of behaviors… Lack breadth and depth to effectively change behavior… Implemented with low intensity, low fidelity = poor outcome… Cynicism by student/family towards interventions… Apathy by support providers…

26 External Community Supports
I hear “One Voice” Academic Support System: Response to Intervention Social/Behavior Support System: School-wide PBS Context for: Person Centered Planning, Functional Assessment & Wraparound

27 What is a conceptual model?
A mental model that represents “concepts” and relationships between them. Formulation of a written description and visual representation of predicted relationships.

28 Dyadic Discussion Practice
Read the assigned article (30 minutes) Break into a group with 4-5 other people who read the same article and discuss (5 minutes) Share out the conceptual model presented in your article

29 Sailor & Roger, 2005 In SAM, who guides instruction for students with special needs?

30 Sailor, 2008 Contrast the medical model vs “New Service Model” OR RTI as presented by Sailor

31 Thompson, Wehmeyer, & Hughes, 2010
Explain the person-environment fit model presented

32 Loman et al., 2010 What are the 3 dimensions of self-determination?
What were the 5 practices that met the conditions of self-determination?

33 Six Guiding Principles to Creating an Inclusive School
All instruction is guided by General Education All school resources are configured to benefit all students School Proactively addresses social development and citizenship School is data-based learning organization School has open boundaries in relation to its families and its community District supports school-centered approach and extensive systems-change activities required to implement a school-wide model Sailor & Roger, 2005

34 Sailor, 2008

35 Practice Guide for Self Determination
Loman et al., 2010

36 Practices Causal Agency/ Independence Proxy Agency Opportunities
Goal Setting Set Self-Monitoring Self –instruction Self-evaluation Self-reinforcement Self-feedback Choice/Dec. Making Prob. Solving Self-Adv Social Capital Soc Inclusion Enriched Environment Dignity of Risk Person-Centered Planning Teacher-Directed Strategies Self-Directed Strategies Family Supports Organize Env. Systems

37 Person-Environment Fit & Schools (Thompson, Wehmeyer, & Hughes, 2010)

38 Change When change occurs individuals are usually pushed out of their box, or their comfort zone. In the case of full inclusion, this change will effect the general education teacher and the special education teacher the most. Incorporate notion of Team-Work where we can pull together, instead of pulling apart, each team member’s expertise into an inclusive educational program

39 Ability Awareness Alternatively called “disability awareness”
Lessons, activities, discussions that teach students & staff about individual abilities Facilitates a dialogue about overall respect & dignity

40 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process
Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Person-centered Planning Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Record Review, IEP Review Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Preference Assessment Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Daily Schedule Analysis Task Analyses Other Assessments Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report To inform IEP: PLAAFP, Goals & Objectives, Interventions

41 Person-Centered Planning
Strength-based shared understanding of : Values, Long-term goals, Current programs, Barriers to participation & success , Possible variables influencing barriers Video:

42 Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH)

43 What planning looks like?

44 Types of Planning Person-Centered Traditional
Focus person and those who know him/her make decisions Programs individualized and focuses on strengths Program adapted as need arises Traditional Experts made decisions about life Placed in programs to overcome areas of weakness Person expected to conform to program

45 Features of Person-Centered Planning
Intentional planning for success (pre-planning) – range of purpose for planning - stage Focus on and driven by the student’s strengths, interests and preferences Focus on capacities and opportunities - establishes a vision The process is flexible, dynamic and informal Requires collaborative teamwork with commitment to action Requires an effective facilitator Excerpt from Flannery, B., Slovic, R. & McLean Person-Centered Planning: How do we know we are doing it?

46 Putting it all together
Community Home Goals School Work

47 Person-centered Planning: Basic Beliefs
Every person has: The right to plan a life for his or herself which is personally meaningful and satisfying. Talents and strengths that can be developed

48 How would you set up a person-centered planning session for one of your students?
Who would be invited? How would people be invited? Schedule? When/Where? Remember: Person-centered…..think about the student

49 Team Members and Roles Adapted Physical Education (APE) Teacher
Provides adaptations to regular PE program to promote student participation Audiologist: Identifies types and degrees of hearing loss and provides equipment guidelines Family Members & Student: Experts in student and stakeholders in their future General Education Teacher: GE content expert, collaborates to instruct student

50 Team Members and Roles Nurse: information source for the team on student’s medical conditions, performs & trains staff to do specialized medical procedures (e.g., tube feeding, catheterization) Occupational Therapist: Promotes optimal physical functioning (fine motor, sensory motor), suggests modifications/supports Physical Therapist: Same, but gross motor, positioning

51 Team Members and Roles Orientation & Mobility (O&M): specialized training in visual functioning in mobility Psychologist: evaluator of student’s intellectual and adaptive abilities and interpreter of evaluation results, may provide suggestions for reducing student behaviors Social Worker: facilitates access to services and establishing linkages between school and community programs

52 Team Members and Roles Speech-Language Pathologist:
Provides instruction in the area of communication, language, speech. Provides suggestions and instruction with AAC devices. Expertise in oral motor and feeding skills Special Education Teacher: Provides specialized teaching strategies, provides and implements adaptations

53 Connection to IEP Education/School a part of person’s life
Consistency across Behavior support Skills training (generalization/adaptation of skills) Communication systems Planning team members

54 PC-Planning Role in Support Planning
Personally valued outcomes that address contextual issues Broader view of the student that takes into account larger issues that affect student (student/family/agency views, funding, disability, community supports) Ensures interventions match students needs/values Provide perspective on historical and present setting events Increase buy-in on the plan from all stakeholders Identify culturally relevant methods of support Increases likelihood of the plan being effective

55 COACH Choosing Outcomes & Accommodations for Children
(3rd Edition): A Guide to Educational Planning for Students with Disabilities Giangreco, Cloninger, Iverson (2011) Brookes Publishing

56 What is COACH? Planning tool designed to help teams determine the components of individually appropriate educational programs for students with intensive special educational needs. Offers initial suggestions for implementing & evaluating students’ educational programs in typical classroom settings & activities

57 2 Parts of COACH (pg. 4) Part A: Determining a Student’s Educational Program Family Interview Additional Learning Outcomes General Supports Part B: Translating the Family-Identified Priorities into Goals & Objectives 4. Writing Annual Goals 5. Writing Short-term Objectives 6. Program-at-a-Glance

58 Principles Forming the Basis of COACH
All students are capable of learning & deserve a meaningful curriculum. Quality instruction requires ongoing access to inclusive environments. Pursuing valued life outcomes informs the selection of curricular content. Family involvement is a cornerstone of educational planning. Collaborative teamwork is essential to quality education. Coordination of services ensures that necessary supports are appropriately provided.

59 Step 1- The Family Interview
Face to face with the family 1-2 parents & the student (when appropriate) Purposely selected school personnel Facilitator guides family through a process in selecting a small set of the most important learning outcomes from the family’s perspective

60 Introducing the Family Interview
Reminder of orientation to COACH (should have been occurred before Family Interview) 6 categories of information to share with the family prior to asking them questions (page 3)

61 Step 1.1: Valued Life Outcomes (pg. 6)
These set a context for the rest of COACH Present/read to family before interview

62 Step 1.2: Selecting Curriculum Areas to be Explored During the Family Interview (pp. 7-13)
Family considers all 9 curriculum areas included in COACH and then make a decision about which subset of areas (up to 4) should be explored in greater depth during the Family Interview. Helps parents become familiar with the curriculum areas and corresponding lists of learning outcomes included in COACH, given the understanding they are designed to extend learning outcomes included in the general education curriculum, not replace them.

63 Step 1. 3: Rating Learning Outcomes in Selected Curriculum Areas (pp
Provides lists for each of the 9 curriculum areas and corresponding learning outcomes considered in the Family Interview.

64 Step 1.4: Prioritizing Learning Outcomes in Selected Curriculum Areas
Prioritizing allows the family to consider which of the learning outcomes are their top priorities within each curriculum area reviewed. Maximum of top 4 priorities Consider strengths & interests of child, immediacy of the need, frequency of use, practicality, future use, and its potential affect on valued life outcomes. Ranked priorities transferred to next step (pp )

65 Step 1.5: Cross-Prioritization (pp. 24-25)
Provides an opportunity for the family to select and rank overall priority learning outcomes for their child. Using the same criteria in step 1.4, the family ranks a maximum of their top 6 overall priorities.

66 Step 2: Additional Learning Outcomes
Team members complete the Additional Learning Outcomes This step recognizes that selecting priorities from the Family Interview are insufficient to comprise a complete educational program. Subset of team members who know the student and who has knowledge of the general education curriculum.

67 Step 2.1: Additional Learning Outcomes from COACH (pp. 26-27)
Ensures that important selections made during the Family Interview, but not slated for inclusion as IEP goals, s well as learning outcome areas tabled in step 1.2 (Selecting Curriculum Areas to Explore during the Family Interview)

68 Step 2. 2: Additional Learning Outcomes from General Education (pp
Ensures that students with disabilities are provided with the same opportunities as their classmates to pursue a broad-based educational program and to be exposed to a variety of educational content.

69 Step 3: General Supports (pp. 34-35)
Simple method for documenting general supports that need to be provided to or for a student. General Supports serve to allow access to, or participation in, the education program. What other people need to do to assist the student. Personal needs, physical needs, teaching others about the student, sensory needs, access & opportunities.

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