4This Afternoon’s Agenda Why are you here?Student Information SheetCourse Syllabus & AssignmentsDefining Severe DisabilitiesActivity: Conceptual ModelsCOACH: A model for educational planning for students with disabilities
5Why are you here? …specifically, pursuing the career of a special educator?
6KWL for instructing students with multiple or developmental disabilities What do you ….KNOWWhat do you…WANTto knowWhat you…LEARNED
7Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & FamilyPerson-centered PlanningStep 2: Summarize what is known about the studentRecord Review, IEP ReviewStep 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student PreferencesPreference AssessmentStep 4: Assess student’s instructional programDaily Schedule AnalysisTask AnalysesOther AssessmentsStep 5: Develop ecological assessment reportTo inform IEP: PLAAFP, Goals & Objectives, Interventions
10Who are students with significant disabilities? In many respects, they are just like everyone else---heterogeneous group of peopleFrom every part of societyEvery ethnic and racial groupAll socioeconomic levelsAll faiths
11When said to have a significant disability it means several things Moderate, severe, or profound intellectual disability-interaction between intelligence and adaptive behavior (i.e., daily living skills, communication, social skills; Grossman, 1983, Reschly, 1999)
122. Disability is present throughout a person’s life Not like catching the flu Person’s needs are lifelong and do not go away simply because he or she turns a certain age
133. Importance of support from other people Needed for all students, but amplified for students with significant disabilities. 1990’s American Association on Mental Retardation revised intellectual disability based on level of support needed. Intermittent, Limited, Extensive, Pervasive
14IDEA, 2004… Does not define severe disabilities 13 distinct disability categoriesSeveral can reasonably include students considered to have severe disabilities: e.g., autism, deaf-blindness, intellectual disabilities, multiple disabilities, traumatic brain injury.2007 Change in Terms: intellectual disabilities rather than mental retardation
15Less than 40 years ago…People with significant disabilities did not have a legal right to attend public schools
16Meet: Grace 6th grader, 12 years old Lives at home with her family: Mom, Dad & 2 high school brothersRecently entered neighborhood schoolShe has a cognitive impairmentShe communicates wants/needs through gestures, pushing, screaming, & crying.
17Meet: Jamar 10th grade, 15 years old English is his second language Living in his 6th foster family with 4 other foster siblings.Loves sports & musicHas difficulty with memory, writing, & organization due to a traumatic brain injuryTries to get friends by teasing, interrupting, and inappropriate proximity
18Meet: Earl Last year of school, 20 yrs old Wants to work, get his own apartment, & manage his own bank accountHis mother is the primary advocate for his needs.Performs well when provided with choices.Communicates mostly with gesturesAugmentative communication systems were unsuccessfully implemented at schoolHas difficulty following directions at school -- if “pushed” to do things, he sometimes hits or pushes others (safety concerns)
20Think of a student that is diagnosed as having a developmental disability What supports does/will this student receive?How are these supports determined?Who is involved in this determination?
21Intensive Needs Usually Evident in All Areas of Life (Life-long) Supports must:Address all contexts, people, situations related to student behavior (Contextual Fit)Think outside the “box” ORSchool Walls.Involve family, professionals, community agencies outside of the school
23Schools continue to struggle to support students with intensive needs (Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Office of Special Education Programs [OSEP], 2002; Rose & Gallup, 2005; Wagner et al, 2006)These students’ needs are often complex & confounded with numerous dynamic variables:Health conditionHome/family situationSchooling history (failure/mobility)Socioeconomic statusCultureOther variables….
24Left unchecked interfering behaviors negatively affect one’s quality of life: Unsuccessful social relationships,Social isolation,Restrictive educational settings,Limited independent work opportunities(Dunlap & Carr, 2007)
25Need for “One Voice”….Fragmented supports that are not linked across systems…Not based on function of behaviors…Lack breadth and depth to effectively change behavior…Implemented with low intensity, low fidelity = poor outcome…Cynicism by student/family towards interventions…Apathy by support providers…
26External Community Supports I hear “One Voice”Academic Support System:Response to InterventionSocial/Behavior Support System: School-wide PBSContext for: Person Centered Planning, Functional Assessment & Wraparound
27What is a conceptual model? A mental model that represents “concepts” and relationships between them.Formulation of a written description and visual representation of predicted relationships.
28Dyadic Discussion Practice Read the assigned article(30 minutes)Break into a group with 4-5 other people who read the same article and discuss (5 minutes)Share out the conceptual model presented in your article
29Sailor & Roger, 2005In SAM, who guides instruction for students with special needs?
30Sailor, 2008Contrast the medical model vs “New Service Model” OR RTI as presented by Sailor
31Thompson, Wehmeyer, & Hughes, 2010 Explain the person-environment fit model presented
32Loman et al., 2010 What are the 3 dimensions of self-determination? What were the 5 practices that met the conditions of self-determination?
33Six Guiding Principles to Creating an Inclusive School All instruction is guided by General EducationAll school resources are configured to benefit all studentsSchool Proactively addresses social development and citizenshipSchool is data-based learning organizationSchool has open boundaries in relation to its families and its communityDistrict supports school-centered approach and extensive systems-change activities required to implement a school-wide modelSailor & Roger, 2005
37Person-Environment Fit & Schools (Thompson, Wehmeyer, & Hughes, 2010)
38ChangeWhen change occurs individuals are usually pushed out of their box, or their comfort zone. In the case of full inclusion, this change will effect the general education teacher and the special education teacher the most.Incorporate notion of Team-Work where we can pull together, instead of pulling apart, each team member’s expertise into an inclusive educational program
39Ability Awareness Alternatively called “disability awareness” Lessons, activities, discussions that teach students & staff about individual abilitiesFacilitates a dialogue about overall respect & dignity
40Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & FamilyPerson-centered PlanningStep 2: Summarize what is known about the studentRecord Review, IEP ReviewStep 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student PreferencesPreference AssessmentStep 4: Assess student’s instructional programDaily Schedule AnalysisTask AnalysesOther AssessmentsStep 5: Develop ecological assessment reportTo inform IEP: PLAAFP, Goals & Objectives, Interventions
41Person-Centered Planning Strength-based shared understanding of :Values,Long-term goals,Current programs,Barriers to participation & success ,Possible variables influencing barriersVideo:
44Types of Planning Person-Centered Traditional Focus person and those who know him/her make decisionsPrograms individualized and focuses on strengthsProgram adapted as need arisesTraditionalExperts made decisions about lifePlaced in programs to overcome areas of weaknessPerson expected to conform to program
45Features of Person-Centered Planning Intentional planning for success (pre-planning) – range of purpose for planning - stageFocus on and driven by the student’s strengths, interests and preferencesFocus on capacities and opportunities - establishes a visionThe process is flexible, dynamic and informalRequires collaborative teamwork with commitment to actionRequires an effective facilitatorExcerpt from Flannery, B., Slovic, R. & McLean Person-Centered Planning: How do we know we are doing it?
46Putting it all together CommunityHomeGoalsSchoolWork
47Person-centered Planning: Basic Beliefs Every person has:The right to plan a life for his or herself which is personally meaningful and satisfying.Talents and strengths that can be developed
48How would you set up a person-centered planning session for one of your students? Who would be invited?How would people be invited?Schedule?When/Where?Remember: Person-centered…..think about the student
49Team Members and Roles Adapted Physical Education (APE) Teacher Provides adaptations to regular PE program to promote student participationAudiologist: Identifies types and degrees of hearing loss and provides equipment guidelinesFamily Members & Student: Experts in student and stakeholders in their futureGeneral Education Teacher: GE content expert, collaborates to instruct student
50Team Members and RolesNurse: information source for the team on student’s medical conditions, performs & trains staff to do specialized medical procedures (e.g., tube feeding, catheterization)Occupational Therapist: Promotes optimal physical functioning (fine motor, sensory motor), suggests modifications/supportsPhysical Therapist: Same, but gross motor, positioning
51Team Members and RolesOrientation & Mobility (O&M): specialized training in visual functioning in mobilityPsychologist: evaluator of student’s intellectual and adaptive abilities and interpreter of evaluation results, may provide suggestions for reducing student behaviorsSocial Worker: facilitates access to services and establishing linkages between school and community programs
52Team Members and Roles Speech-Language Pathologist: Provides instruction in the area of communication, language, speech.Provides suggestions and instruction with AAC devices.Expertise in oral motor and feeding skillsSpecial Education Teacher:Provides specialized teaching strategies, provides and implements adaptations
53Connection to IEP Education/School a part of person’s life Consistency acrossBehavior supportSkills training (generalization/adaptation of skills)Communication systemsPlanning team members
54PC-Planning Role in Support Planning Personally valued outcomes that address contextual issuesBroader view of the student that takes into account larger issues that affect student (student/family/agency views, funding, disability, community supports)Ensures interventions match students needs/valuesProvide perspective on historical and present setting eventsIncrease buy-in on the plan from all stakeholdersIdentify culturally relevant methods of supportIncreases likelihood of the plan being effective
55COACH Choosing Outcomes & Accommodations for Children (3rd Edition): A Guide to Educational Planning for Students with DisabilitiesGiangreco, Cloninger, Iverson (2011)Brookes Publishing
56What is COACH?Planning tool designed to help teams determine the components of individually appropriate educational programs for students with intensive special educational needs.Offers initial suggestions for implementing & evaluating students’ educational programs in typical classroom settings & activities
572 Parts of COACH (pg. 4)Part A: Determining a Student’s Educational ProgramFamily InterviewAdditional Learning OutcomesGeneral SupportsPart B: Translating the Family-Identified Priorities into Goals & Objectives4. Writing Annual Goals5. Writing Short-term Objectives6. Program-at-a-Glance
58Principles Forming the Basis of COACH All students are capable of learning & deserve a meaningful curriculum.Quality instruction requires ongoing access to inclusive environments.Pursuing valued life outcomes informs the selection of curricular content.Family involvement is a cornerstone of educational planning.Collaborative teamwork is essential to quality education.Coordination of services ensures that necessary supports are appropriately provided.
59Step 1- The Family Interview Face to face with the family1-2 parents & the student (when appropriate)Purposely selected school personnelFacilitator guides family through a process in selecting a small set of the most important learning outcomes from the family’s perspective
60Introducing the Family Interview Reminder of orientation to COACH (should have been occurred before Family Interview)6 categories of information to share with the family prior to asking them questions (page 3)
61Step 1.1: Valued Life Outcomes (pg. 6) These set a context for the rest of COACHPresent/read to family before interview
62Step 1.2: Selecting Curriculum Areas to be Explored During the Family Interview (pp. 7-13) Family considers all 9 curriculum areas included in COACH and then make a decision about which subset of areas (up to 4) should be explored in greater depth during the Family Interview.Helps parents become familiar with the curriculum areas and corresponding lists of learning outcomes included in COACH, given the understanding they are designed to extend learning outcomes included in the general education curriculum, not replace them.
63Step 1. 3: Rating Learning Outcomes in Selected Curriculum Areas (pp Provides lists for each of the 9 curriculum areas and corresponding learning outcomes considered in the Family Interview.
64Step 1.4: Prioritizing Learning Outcomes in Selected Curriculum Areas Prioritizing allows the family to consider which of the learning outcomes are their top priorities within each curriculum area reviewed.Maximum of top 4 prioritiesConsider strengths & interests of child, immediacy of the need, frequency of use, practicality, future use, and its potential affect on valued life outcomes.Ranked priorities transferred to next step (pp )
65Step 1.5: Cross-Prioritization (pp. 24-25) Provides an opportunity for the family to select and rank overall priority learning outcomes for their child.Using the same criteria in step 1.4, the family ranks a maximum of their top 6 overall priorities.
66Step 2: Additional Learning Outcomes Team members complete the Additional Learning OutcomesThis step recognizes that selecting priorities from the Family Interview are insufficient to comprise a complete educational program.Subset of team members who know the student and who has knowledge of the general education curriculum.
67Step 2.1: Additional Learning Outcomes from COACH (pp. 26-27) Ensures that important selections made during the Family Interview, but not slated for inclusion as IEP goals, s well as learning outcome areas tabled in step 1.2 (Selecting Curriculum Areas to Explore during the Family Interview)
68Step 2. 2: Additional Learning Outcomes from General Education (pp Ensures that students with disabilities are provided with the same opportunities as their classmates to pursue a broad-based educational program and to be exposed to a variety of educational content.
69Step 3: General Supports (pp. 34-35) Simple method for documenting general supports that need to be provided to or for a student.General Supports serve to allow access to, or participation in, the education program.What other people need to do to assist the student.Personal needs, physical needs, teaching others about the student, sensory needs, access & opportunities.