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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Numbers in the Real World

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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-3 Unit 3A Uses and Abuses of Percentages

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Calculating Percents The key to calculating percents, in my opinion is to understand the words percent, is and of. Percent means for each 100. So the key is the following: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-4

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Example 1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-5 29 is what % of 62? Is = 29, of = 62, % = ? x = 46.774%

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Example 2 What is 48% of 1300? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-6 Is = x, of = 1300, % = 48 x = 624

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Example 3 350 is 180% of what? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-7 Is = 350, of = x, % = 180 x = 194.44

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-8 As fractions: 15% of the of the 850 students in a school were absent. To describe change: The price of a stock increased 75% from $50 per share. For comparisons: A Mercedes costs 25% more than a Lexus. Three Ways of Using Percentages

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-9 The absolute change describes the actual increase or decrease from a reference value (starting number) to a new value: absolute change = new value – reference value The relative change is a fraction that describes the size of the absolute change in comparison to the reference value: Absolute and Relative Change

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-10 Example: A diversified portfolio grows from $1,500 to $2,250. absolute change= new value – reference value = $2,250 – $1,500 = $750 = $750 / $1,500 = 0.5 = 50% relative change= Absolute vs. Relative Change

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-11 The absolute difference is the actual difference between the compared value and the reference value: absolute difference = compared value – reference value The relative difference describes the size of the absolute difference as a fraction of the reference value: Absolute and Relative Difference

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-12 If the compared value is P% more than the reference value, it is (100 + P)% of the reference value. If the compared value is P% less than the reference value, it is (100 – P)% of the reference value. Of versus More Than (or Less Than)

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-13 Percentages of Percentages Example: If a bank increases its interest rate from 4% to 5%, the interest rate increased by 1 percentage point. When a change or difference is expressed in percentage points, assume it is an absolute change or difference. with the % sign or the word percent, it is a relative change or difference.

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-14 Solving Percentage Problems If the compared value is P% more than the reference value, then and If the compared value is less than the reference value, use (100 – P) instead of (100 + P) in the above calculations.

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-15 You purchase a shirt with a labeled (pre-tax) price of $21. The local sales tax rate is 6%. What is your final cost (including tax)? final cost = labeled price + (6% of labeled price) = (100 + 6)% x labeled price = 106% x $21 = 1.06 x $21 = $22.26 Solving Percentage Problems

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3-A Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-16 Abuses of Percentages Beware of Shifting Reference Values A 10% pay cut is followed by a 10% pay raise. Less than Nothing Decrease caloric intake by 150% to lose weight. Don’t Average Percentages If 70% of the boys and 60% of the girls in a class voted to go to a water park, then 65% of the students in the class voted to go to the water park.

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3-A In-Class Group Assignment P. 141–143 18 – 96 multiples of 3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3-17

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