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Information Processing Module 21

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1 Information Processing Module 21
Add slide for episodic memory Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual knowledge) that can be explicitly stated. Semantic and episodic memory together make up the category of declarative memory, which is one of the two major divisions in memory. The counterpart to declarative, or explicit memory, is procedural memory, or implicit memory.[1] Module

2 Memory Overview Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode
What We Encode Storage: Retaining Information Sensory Memory Working/Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval Cues Module

3 Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. An event is such a little piece of time and space, leaving only a mindglow behind like the tail of a shooting star. Far a lack of a better word, we call that scintillation memory. Diane Ackerman, An Alchemy of Mind, 2004 If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger. Module

4 Figure 7.1: Basic Memory Processes

5 Studying Memory: Information Processing Models
Preview Question 1: How do psychologists describe the human memory system? Link to memory at pbs/nova According to the information-processing view of memory, the first stage in memory processing involves (AP99) (A) Retrieval (B) Storage (C) Rehearsal (D) Encoding (E) Transfer Link to How Memory works at Nova Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) How Memory Works Nova Sequential Process Module

6 According to the information-processing view of memory, the first stage in memory processing involves (AP99) (A) Retrieval (B) Storage (C) Rehearsal (D) Encoding (E) Transfer

7 Information Processing Model Three Stages of Memory
The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory. Sensory Memory Role of sensory registers is to hold sensory info just long enough to get into STM. Provides coherence and continuity to world. Short-Term Memory (STM) and Working Memory Two components: Maintenance – Holds unrehearsed info (STM) Manipulation – Working Memory - Consciously thinking and working on info being held in STM. Mostly uses acoustic encoding. Module

8 Modifications to the Three-Stage Model
Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory. Module

9 Working Memory A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory Working memory fades unless we rehearse it Module

10 Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode Preview Question 2: How do automatic and effortful processing help us encode sights, sounds, and other sensations and transfer them into our memory system? Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed. However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort. Module

11 Automatic Processing We process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following: Reading an example of automatic processing after practice Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page. Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day. Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen to you. Module

12 Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories.
Effortful Processing Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories. Preview Question 3: How much does rehearsal aid in forming memories? Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit © Bananastock/ Alamy Module

13 Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition.
Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ Add examples written from lectures online Hermann Ebbinghaus ( ) Module

14 Rehearsal The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2. Module

15 Memory Effects Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items. Spaced study beats cramming (Bahrick 1993) Module

16 Encoding: Serial Position Effect
Primacy – early on list Recency – Most recent Do serial position effect lab Elena is presented with a list of 20 numbers. When asked to recall this list, she remembers more numbers from the beginning than from the end of the list. This phenomenon demonstrates which of the following types of effect? (AP94) (A) Mnemonic (B) Primacy (C) Recency (D) Secondary (E) Clustering When a list of words is learned in order, the words most likely to be forgotten are those that are (AP99) (A) At the beginning of the list (B) At the end of the list (C) In the middle of the list (D) Hardest to pronounce (E) Easiest to spell Module

17 What We Encode Overview
Encoding by meaning Encoding by images Encoding by organization Preview Question 4: What methods of effortful processing aid in forming memories? Module

18 Encoding Meaning Processing the meaning of verbal information by associating it with what we already know or imagine. Encoding meaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding. Ebbinghaus – Learning meaningful material required 1/10th the effort of meaningless material. “The time you spend thinking about material you are reading and relating it to previously stored materials is about the most useful thing you can do in learning any new subject matter” (Wickelgren 1977) Module

19 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. More likely to recall high imagery worlds than low like inherent or process Do high imagery word lab. Both photos: Ho/AP Photo Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it. Module

20 Encoding Module

21 Mnemonics Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery and organizational devices in aiding memory. Show mnemonic examples "May I have a large container of coffee." English: How I wish I could enumerate Pi easily, since all these horrible mnemonics prevent recalling any of pi's sequence more simply. How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy chapters involving quantum mechanics. One is, yes, adequate even enough to induce some fun and pleasure for an instant, miserably brief. Count the number of letters in each word of that sentence, and you'll see that the digits of Pi are revealed to seven decimal places. MVEMJSUNP My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas My Very Educated Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets Mary’s Violet Eyes Make John Sit Up Nights Period Module

22 Organizing Information for Encoding
Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. Chunking Hierarchies Module

23 Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below. King Phillip came over for good spaghetti Click to animate If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better Module

24 Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it.
HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet Module

25 Encoding: Chunking Organized information is more easily recalled
Slide illustrates organized vs. unorganized information Module

26 Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories. Organize knowledge into hierarchies helps retrieve information efficiently Outlines are types of hierarchical organizations Graphic organizers are examples of hierarchical organizations Module

27 Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy

28 Storage: Retaining Information Overview
Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval Module

29 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events
Preview Question 5: How does sensory memory work? Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval Module

30 Whole Report R G T F M Q L Z S “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall)
Sperling (1960) R G T F M Q L Z S “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second) The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed. Module

31 Partial Report S X T J R S P K Y “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Low Tone
Recall rows based on tones S X T J R S P K Y Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” J R S (100% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second) Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought. Module

32 Time Delay A D I N L V O G H “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Low Tone
The time delay showed that our iconic memory was very short A D I N L V O G H Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Time Delay 50 ms (1/20 second) Module

33 The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss.
Sensory Memory The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. 20 40 60 80 Percent Recognized 0.15 0.30 0.50 1.00 Time (Seconds) Module

34 The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.
Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses. Echoic,….mom yelling at you….you’re not even listening, what did I just say…..and you repeat it back Hepatic = tactile Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long Module

35 Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events
Preview Question 6: What are the limits of short-term memory? Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval Module

36 Working Memory Capacity
The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two(1956). Do demos from podcast Early researcher Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember up to 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed. Miller 1956 Classics in the history of psychology. Slightly better for random letters than numbers Slightly better for what we hear than for what we see. Miller saw a connection between how humans think & how computers process information. Miller was of the first to use "processing information" regarding human thought. Miller was a founder of the cognitive science lab at Harvard & Princeton. Cantonese dialect of Chinese gives it’s speakers a 10 digit number span…(Outliers, Malcom Gladwell) Stanislaus Diatana suggests that this has more to do with the amount of numbers we can cram into 2 seconds, the Chinese use shorter words fo numbers so their digit span is greater. Ready? M U T G I K T L R S Y P Working memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds). George Miller Module

37 Module 21 06 23 11 An excerpt from Chapter Eight.
Take a look at the following list of numbers: 4,8,5,3,9,7,6. Read them out loud to yourself. Now look away, and spend twenty seconds memorizing that sequence before saying them out loud again. If you speak English, you have about a 50 percent chance of remembering that sequence perfectly If you're Chinese, though, you're almost certain to get it right every time. Why is that? Because as human beings we store digits in a memory loop that runs for about two seconds. We most easily memorize whatever we can say or read within that two second span. And Chinese speakers get that list of numbers—4,8,5,3,9,7,6—right every time because—unlike English speakers—their language allows them to fit all those seven numbers into two seconds. That example comes from Stanislas Dehaene's book "The Number Sense," and as Dehaene explains: Chinese number words are remarkably brief. Most of them can be uttered in less than one-quarter of a second (for instance, 4 is 'si' and 7 'qi') Their English equivalents—"four," "seven"—are longer: pronouncing them takes about one-third of a second. The memory gap between English and Chinese apparently is entirely due to this difference in length. In languages as diverse as Welsh, Arabic, Chinese, English and Hebrew, there is a reproducible correlation between the time required to pronounce numbers in a given language and the memory span of its speakers. In this domain, the prize for efficacy goes to the Cantonese dialect of Chinese, whose brevity grants residents of Hong Kong a rocketing memory span of about 10 digits. It turns out that there is also a big difference in how number-naming systems in Western and Asian languages are constructed. In English, we say fourteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen and nineteen, so one would think that we would also say one-teen, two-teen, and three-teen. But we don't. We make up a different form: eleven, twelve, thirteen, and fifteen. Similarly, we have forty, and sixty, which sound like what they are. But we also say fifty and thirty and twenty, which sort of sound what they are but not really. And, for that matter, for numbers above twenty, we put the "decade" first and the unit number second: twenty-one, twenty-two. For the teens, though, we do it the other way around. We put the decade second and the unit number first: fourteen, seventeen, eighteen. The number system in English is highly irregular. Not so in China, Japan and Korea. They have a logical counting system. Eleven is ten one. Twelve is ten two. Twenty-four is two ten four, and so on. That difference means that Asian children learn to count much faster. Four year old Chinese children can count, on average, up to forty. American children, at that age, can only count to fifteen, and don't reach forty until they're five: by the age of five, in other words, American children are already a year behind their Asian counterparts in the most fundamental of math skills. The regularity of their number systems also means that Asian children can perform basic functions—like addition—far more easily. Ask an English seven-year-old to add thirty-seven plus twenty two, in her head, and she has to convert the words to numbers ( ). Only then can she do the math: 2 plus 7 is nine and 30 and 20 is 50, which makes 59. Ask an Asian child to add three-tens-seven and two tens-two, and then the necessary equation is right there, embedded in the sentence. No number translation is necessary: It's five-tens nine. "The Asian system is transparent," says Karen Fuson, a Northwestern University psychologist, who has done much of the research on Asian-Western differences. "I think that it makes the whole attitude toward math different. Instead of being a rote learning thing, there's a pattern I can figure out. There is an expectation that I can do this. There is an expectation that it's sensible. For fractions, we say three fifths. The Chinese is literally, 'out of five parts, take three.' That's telling you conceptually what a fraction is. It's differentiating the denominator and the numerator." The much-storied disenchantment with mathematics among western children starts in the third and fourth grade, and Fuson argues that perhaps a part of that disenchantment is due to the fact that math doesn't seem to make sense; its linguistic structure is clumsy; its basic rules seem arbitrary and complicated. Asian children, by contrast, don't face nearly that same sense of bafflement. They can hold more numbers in their head, and do calculations faster, and the way fractions are expressed in their language corresponds exactly to the way a fraction actually is—and maybe that makes them a little more likely to enjoy math, and maybe because they enjoy math a little more they try a little harder and take more math classes and are more willing to do their homework, and on and on, in a kind of virtuous circle. When it comes to math, in other words, Asians have built-in advantage. . . Excerpt from Outliers by Malcom Gladwell Module

38 Chunking F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI TWA CIA IBM
You already know the capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.” Suppressing rehearsal reduces the amount we can remember to about 4 chunks of info (Cowan 2001) 21 8. When rehearsal of incoming information is prevented, which of the following will most likely occur? (AP94) (A) The information will remain indefinitely in short-term memory. (B) There will be no transfer of the information to long-term memory. (C) The sensory register will stop processing the information. (D) Retrieval of the information from long-term memory will be easier. (E) Information already in long-term memory will be integrated with the incoming F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI TWA CIA IBM But you didn’t know that you can handle 4 chunks Module

39 The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec.
Peterson and Peterson (1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. CHJ MKT HIJ 547 547 544 541 CH?? The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec. Module

40 Working Memory Duration

41 Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events
Preview Question 7: How large and durable is our long-term memory? Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval Module

42 Essentially unlimited capacity store.
Long-Term Memory Essentially unlimited capacity store. The Clark’s nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of buried pine seeds during winter and spring. R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers Module

43 Memory Feats LTM- Long term memory
20,013 Creighton Carvello (Great Britain)1980 31,811 Rajan Mahadevan (India)1985 40,000 Hideaki Tomoyori (Japan)1987 42,195 Hiroyuki Goto (Japan)1995 67,890 Chao Lu (China) 2005 Module

44 Memory Stores Quick Look
Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM Encoding Copy Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 7±2 Chunks Very Large Duration 0.25 sec. 20 sec. Years LTM- Long term memory Phonemic encoding involves translating the visual input from written words into sounds. For example, phonemic encoding of the words in the list presented above would allow us to state that the words rhyme with bog, bar, chance, etc. Module

45 Storing Memories in the Brain
Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed previous research data showing, through brain stimulation, that memories were etched into the brain and found that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze. Preview Question 8: How are memories recorded in the brain? Memories not stored with the exactness of a video recorder Memories do not reside in specific spots Mapping memory in the brain Mapping Memory in the brain Module

46 Synaptic Changes In Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning. Memories appear to exist as traces California sea slug has only 20,000 or so nerve cells, and the neurons are very large compared to other organisms Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed previous research data showing, through brain stimulation, that memories were etched into the brain and found that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze. Link to A Memorable Snail at Nova, vid of aplysia on nova Photo: Scientific American Link to Aplysia at nova Module

47 Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses. Drugs that block LTP interfere with learning Drugs that enhance ltp inhance learning Rats given drugs that enhance ltp learn mazes w/half the number of mistakes Electroconvulsive therapy can disrupt recent memories Link to Memory in Action at Nova Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov Courtesy of Dominique Muller Link to Memory in action at Nova 3:07 Module

48 Stress Hormones & Memory
Flashbulb memories are clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events. Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Flashbulb memories can sometimes error Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. 21 or An individual's ability to remember the day he or she first swam the length of a swimming pool is most clearly an example of which of the following kinds of memory? (AP99) (A) Semantic (B) Flashbulb (C) Procedural (D) Priming (E) Episodic Scott Barbour/ Getty Images Module

49 Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories
Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows. People with brain damage that keeps them from learning new facts can “find waldo” faster the second time around. They have no conscious recall but clearly have seen figures before Brain appears to have 2 pathways for memory Implicit memory: how does your tongue form the word carpenter, you have no idea until you do it but you can still say the word without difficulty Module

50 Hippocampus Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic
system that processes explicit memories. Clive Wearing on Annenberg Media the mind #10 and #11 Clive on youtube Hippocampus active during slow wave sleep, the more active it is the better memory the next day. (Peigneux 2004) Left hippocampus damage trouble remembering verbal info but not visual designs and locations Right hippocampus damage the opposite AM Mind 10. Life Without Memory: The Case of Clive Wearing, Part 1 Raises many questions about the nature of memory and its importance to human existence. Introduces the viewer to Clive Wearing, who is incapable of making new memories due to viral encephalitis. AM Mind 11. Clive Wearing, Part 2: Living Without Memory Presents an extraordinary example of the relationship between brain damage and memory function by reintroducing the viewer to Clive Wearing 13 years after his appearance in part one. Clive Wearing at AM Clive on YT Weidenfield & Nicolson archives Module

51 Figure 7.23: The anatomy of memory.
All the brain structures identified here have been implicated in efforts to discover the anatomical structures involved in memory. The hippocampus is the hub of the medial temporal lobe memory system, which is thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of long-term memories. Damage to the Hippocampus Difficulty forming new memories Diminished in Alzheimer’s patients Neurotransmitters play a role Acetylcholine Alzheimer’s patients show low levels of this Decay theory Memories deteriorate because of the passage of time Distractor Studies – information fades from STM Fig. 7-23, p. 286 Module 51

52 Amnesias After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but could not make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Damaged on purpose to control epilepsy, the surgery would never be done again, December 5, 2008 H. M., an Unforgettable Amnesiac, Dies at 82 By BENEDICT CAREY He knew his name. That much he could remember. He knew that his father’s family came from Thibodaux, La., and his mother was from Ireland, and he knew about the 1929 stock market crash and World War II and life in the 1940s. But he could remember almost nothing after that. In 1953, he underwent an experimental brain operation in Hartford to correct a seizure disorder, only to emerge from it fundamentally and irreparably changed. He developed a syndrome neurologists call profound amnesia. He had lost the ability to form new memories. For the next 55 years, each time he met a friend, each time he ate a meal, each time he walked in the woods, it was as if for the first time. John suffered a head injury in an accident five years ago. He now has clear memories of events that occurred before the accident, but he has great difficulty remembering any of the experiences he has had since the accident. John's symptoms describe (AP99) (A) anterograde amnesia (B) Broca's aphasia (C) cue-dependent forgetting (D) Selective amnesia (E) Retroactive interference Which of the following is and example of retrograde amnesia? (AP04) (A) Ty cannot recall the face of the thief he saw running from the scene of the crime (B) Cassie’s vivid memory of the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger is not corroborated by those she was with at the time (C) Alberto is unable to remember anything since the accident that destroyed portions of his hippocampus (D) Katie attributes her poor performance on a standardized test to the fact that she took the exam in a room other than the one that she learned the material. (E) Alyse cannot remember any details of what happened right before her car accident Link to How Memory Works at Nova Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Retrograde amnesia Memory Intact No New Memories Surgery No old memories Memory intact Surgery How memory works at Nova 10:15 Module

53 Implicit & Explicit Memory
HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game. Also tracing figures in mirrors Started to have feeling he had seen a researcher…thought he might be in his HS class Also flattened affect, not that concerned about his situation Remembering how to roller skate involves which of the following kinds of memory? (AP04) (A) Semantic (B) Episodic (C) Priming (D) Procedural (E) Prospective So the formula for finding the number of steps it takes to transfer n disks from post A to post B is: 2^n - 1. From this formula you can see that even if it only takes the monks one second to make each move, it will be 2^ seconds before the world will end. This is 590,000,000,000 years (that's 590 billion years) - far, far longer than some scientists estimate the solar system will last. That's a really long time! C B A Towers of Hanoi Link Module

54 Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain
that processes implicit memories. Doc pricks hand of amnesiac and she then refuses to shake but does not know why (LeDoux 1996) Damage can result in being unable to develop certain conditioned reflexes (Baum 1996) Module

55 Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. Preview Question 9: How do we get information out of memory? Even after you forget the names of the people in your graduating class you can recognize their pictures or pick their names from lists. 25 Years very low recall of past classmates, but 90% recognition (Miseradino 1991) A few individuals remember too mcuh. Jill price 2008, The Woman Who Can’t Forget” The days of her life replay ceaselessly in her mind and she is unable to forgive herself for her bad choices. Brad Williams frustrated by memory that never lets up. Sleights of mind 129 Spanky’s Yearbook Archive Spanky’s Yearbook Archive Module

56 Recognition In recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.) Recognition is very fast, our brain knows before we can say the words Name the capital of France. Brussels Rome London Paris Module

57 Recall In recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) But our recall can be fooled…the real capital is Baton Rouge The capital of Louisiana is ______. New Orleans…. Module

58 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. Priming on next slide. water smell hose Fire Truck fire smoke truck heat red Module

59 Information is retrieved from memory through spreading activation
Semantic Networks Information is retrieved from memory through spreading activation

60 Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming. An explanation for Freudian slips….when you say one thing and mean your mother. In a moment of passion you say your ex lover’s name…. Priming is the awakening of associations This can happen without our awareness Add examples of priming Module

61 Memory Test #2 Memorize the following words (List 1) read, pages, letters, school, study, reading, stories, sheets, cover, pen, pencil, magazine, paper, words

62 Memory Test #2 Now…write down any words from the following list which were on the List 1: house, pencil, apple, shoe, book, flag, rock, train, ocean, hill, music, water, glass, school

63 Memory Test #2 Did you say that "book" was on list 1? Only pencil and school were on list 1. Why do so many people think “book” was on List 1?

64 Memory Test #3 Memorize the following words (List 1) sheets, pillow, mattress, blanket, comfortable, room, dream, lay, chair, rest, tired, night, dark, time

65 Memory Test #3 Now…write down any words from the following list which were on the List 1: door, tree, eye, song, pillow, juice, orange, radio, rain, car, sleep, cat, dream, eat

66 Memory Test #3 Did you say that "sleep" was on list 1? Only pillow and dream were on List 1 Why do so many people think “sleep” was on List 1? Constructive Memory This is an example of a false memory. Using semantic encoding is good, but it can lead to semantic errors. Many people get a “false positive” error when a word shows up in List 2 that is semantically similar to many words in List 1.

67 Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). Ever go do something and forget why you were doing it…only to return to where you started and remember Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers Module

68 Context Effects After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context (Rovee-Collier, 1993). Babies will kick more in a crib with the same bumper as when they learned the kicking activity Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier, Rutgers University Module

69 Déjà Vu Déjà Vu means “I've experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. French for already seen Happens most to well educated, imaginative, young adults when tired or stressed (Brown 2003) Other kinds of vu jamais vu (from the French, meaning "never seen") is used to describe any familiar situation which is not recognized by the observer Presque vu (from French, meaning "almost seen") is the sensation of being on the brink of an epiphany. Often very disorienting and distracting, presque vu rarely leads to an actual breakthrough. Frequently, one experiencing presque vu will say that they have something "on the tip of my tongue". Presque vu is often cited by people who suffer from epilepsy or other seizure-related brain conditions, such as temporal lobe lability. Differences in how fast sensory systems encode information may give us this feeling, sight might be at fault. © The New Yorker Collection, Leo Cullum from All Rights Reserved Module

70 Retrieving Incomplete Knowledge
Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon “The answer is on the tip-of-my-tongue… It starts with Q….” Feeling-of-knowing Experience – If you don’t know the answer, how likely is it that you could recognize the answer? People are good at this. They “know it” but can’t retrieve it. Presque vu (from French, meaning "almost seen") is the sensation of being on the brink of an epiphany. Often very disorienting and distracting, presque vu rarely leads to an actual breakthrough. Frequently, one experiencing presque vu will say that they have something "on the tip of my tongue". Module

71 Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood (state-dependent memory). Ask about childhood while in a bad mood people report more negatives than in a good mood. Jorgen Schytte/ Still Pictures Our memories are mood-congruent. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues. Module

72 EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers
PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad, Garber edits Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2008 Module

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