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1 Information Processing Module 21 2 Memory Overview Encoding: Getting Information In  How We Encode  What We Encode Storage: Retaining Information.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Information Processing Module 21 2 Memory Overview Encoding: Getting Information In  How We Encode  What We Encode Storage: Retaining Information."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 Information Processing Module 21

3 2 Memory Overview Encoding: Getting Information In  How We Encode  What We Encode Storage: Retaining Information  Sensory Memory  Working/Short-Term Memory  Long-Term Memory Retrieval: Getting Information Out  Retrieval Cues

4 3 Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.

5 4 Figure 7.1: Basic Memory Processes

6 5 Studying Memory: Information Processing Models Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process How Memory Works Nova

7 According to the information- processing view of memory, the first stage in memory processing involves (AP99) (A) Retrieval (B) Storage (C) Rehearsal (D) Encoding (E) Transfer 6

8 7 Information Processing Model Three Stages of Memory

9 8 Modifications to the Three-Stage Model 1.Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. 2.Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory.

10 9 Working Memory A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

11 10 Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode 1.Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed. 2.However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.

12 11 Automatic Processing We process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following: 1.Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page. 2.Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day. 3.Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen to you.

13 12 Effortful Processing Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories. Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit © Bananastock/ Alamy

14 13 Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus ( )

15 14 Rehearsal The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.

16 15 Memory Effects 1.Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time. 2.Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.

17 16 Encoding: Serial Position Effect

18 17 What We Encode Overview 1.Encoding by meaning 2.Encoding by images 3.Encoding by organization

19 18 Encoding Meaning Processing the meaning of verbal information by associating it with what we already know or imagine. Encoding meaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding.

20 19 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it. Both photos: Ho/AP Photo

21 20 Encoding

22 21 Mnemonics Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery and organizational devices in aiding memory.

23 22 Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. Organizing Information for Encoding 1.Chunking 2.Hierarchies

24 23 Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better

25 24 Chunking Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it. HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

26 25 Encoding: Chunking  Organized information is more easily recalled

27 26 Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.

28 27 Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy

29 28 Storage: Retaining Information Overview Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

30 29 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

31 30 Whole Report The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed. R G T F M Q L Z S 50 ms (1/20 second) “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) Sperling (1960)

32 31 Partial Report Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought. 50 ms (1/20 second) S X T J R S P K Y

33 32 Time Delay “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Time Delay 50 ms (1/20 second) A D I N L V O G H Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone

34 33 Sensory Memory The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss Percent Recognized Time (Seconds)

35 34 Sensory Memories Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.

36 35 Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

37 36 Working Memory Capacity Working memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds). The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two(1956). George Miller M U T G I K T L R S Y P Ready?

38 37

39 38 Chunking F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M You already know the capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.” FBI TWA CIA IBM But you didn’t know that you can handle 4 chunks

40 39 Duration Peterson and Peterson (1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. CH?? The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec. CHJ MKT HIJ …

41 40 Working Memory Duration

42 41 Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

43 42 Long-Term Memory Essentially unlimited capacity store. R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers

44 43 Memory Feats

45 44 Memory Stores Quick Look Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM EncodingCopyPhonemicSemantic CapacityUnlimited7±2 ChunksVery Large Duration0.25 sec.20 sec.Years

46 45 Storing Memories in the Brain 1.Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed previous research data showing, through brain stimulation, that memories were etched into the brain and found that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. 2.Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze. Mapping Memory in the brain

47 46 Synaptic Changes In Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning. Photo: Scientific American Link to AplysiaLink to Aplysia at nova

48 47 Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses. Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov Courtesy of Dominique Muller Link to Memory in action at Nova 3:07

49 48 Stress Hormones & Memory Flashbulb memories are clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events. Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Scott Barbour/ Getty Images

50 49 Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows.

51 50 Hippocampus Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories. Weidenfield & Nicolson archives Clive Wearing at AM Clive on YT

52 51 Fig. 7-23, p. 286

53 52 No New Memories Amnesias Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Retrograde amnesia Surgery After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but could not make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Memory Intact How memory works at NovaHow memory works at Nova 10:15 Memory intact Surgery No old memories

54 53 Implicit & Explicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). C B A Towers of Hanoi Link

55 54 Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.

56 55 Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. Spanky’s Yearbook Archive

57 56 Recognition In recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.) 1.Name the capital of France. a.Brussels b.Rome c.London d.Paris

58 57 Recall In recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) 1.The capital of Louisiana is ______. New Orleans….

59 58 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. Fire Truck truck red fire heat smoke smell water hose

60 59 Information is retrieved from memory through spreading activation Semantic Networks

61 60 Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.

62 61 Memory Test #2 Memorize the following words (List 1) read, pages, letters, school, study, reading, stories, sheets, cover, pen, pencil, magazine, paper, words

63 62 Memory Test #2 Now…write down any words from the following list which were on the List 1: house, pencil, apple, shoe, book, flag, rock, train, ocean, hill, music, water, glass, school

64 63 Memory Test #2 Did you say that "book" was on list 1? Only pencil and school were on list 1. Why do so many people think “book” was on List 1?

65 64 Memory Test #3 Memorize the following words (List 1) sheets, pillow, mattress, blanket, comfortable, room, dream, lay, chair, rest, tired, night, dark, time

66 65 Memory Test #3 Now…write down any words from the following list which were on the List 1: door, tree, eye, song, pillow, juice, orange, radio, rain, car, sleep, cat, dream, eat

67 66 Memory Test #3 Did you say that "sleep" was on list 1? Only pillow and dream were on List 1 Why do so many people think “sleep” was on List 1? Constructive Memory This is an example of a false memory. Using semantic encoding is good, but it can lead to semantic errors. Many people get a “false positive” error when a word shows up in List 2 that is semantically similar to many words in List 1.

68 67 Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers

69 68 Context Effects After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context (Rovee-Collier, 1993). Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier, Rutgers University

70 69 Déjà Vu Déjà Vu means “I've experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. © The New Yorker Collection, Leo Cullum from All Rights Reserved

71 70 Retrieving Incomplete Knowledge Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon –“The answer is on the tip-of-my-tongue… It starts with Q….” Feeling-of-knowing Experience – If you don’t know the answer, how likely is it that you could recognize the answer? People are good at this. They “know it” but can’t retrieve it.

72 71 Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood (state-dependent memory). Jorgen Schytte/ Still Pictures Our memories are mood-congruent. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues.

73 72 EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad, Garber edits Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2008

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