Presentation on theme: "1 Information Processing Module 21 2 Memory Overview Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode What We Encode Storage: Retaining Information."— Presentation transcript:
1 Information Processing Module 21
2 Memory Overview Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode What We Encode Storage: Retaining Information Sensory Memory Working/Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval Cues
3 Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.
4 Figure 7.1: Basic Memory Processes
5 Studying Memory: Information Processing Models Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process How Memory Works Nova
According to the information- processing view of memory, the first stage in memory processing involves (AP99) (A) Retrieval (B) Storage (C) Rehearsal (D) Encoding (E) Transfer 6
7 Information Processing Model Three Stages of Memory
8 Modifications to the Three-Stage Model 1.Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. 2.Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory.
9 Working Memory A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
10 Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode 1.Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed. 2.However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.
11 Automatic Processing We process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following: 1.Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page. 2.Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day. 3.Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen to you.
13 Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus ( )
14 Rehearsal The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.
15 Memory Effects 1.Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time. 2.Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.
16 Encoding: Serial Position Effect
17 What We Encode Overview 1.Encoding by meaning 2.Encoding by images 3.Encoding by organization
18 Encoding Meaning Processing the meaning of verbal information by associating it with what we already know or imagine. Encoding meaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding.
19 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it. Both photos: Ho/AP Photo
21 Mnemonics Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery and organizational devices in aiding memory.
22 Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. Organizing Information for Encoding 1.Chunking 2.Hierarchies
23 Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better
24 Chunking Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it. HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
25 Encoding: Chunking Organized information is more easily recalled
26 Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.
27 Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy
28 Storage: Retaining Information Overview Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval
30 Whole Report The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed. R G T F M Q L Z S 50 ms (1/20 second) “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) Sperling (1960)
31 Partial Report Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought. 50 ms (1/20 second) S X T J R S P K Y
32 Time Delay “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Time Delay 50 ms (1/20 second) A D I N L V O G H Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone
33 Sensory Memory The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss Percent Recognized Time (Seconds)
34 Sensory Memories Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.
35 Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval
36 Working Memory Capacity Working memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds). The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two(1956). George Miller M U T G I K T L R S Y P Ready?
38 Chunking F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M You already know the capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.” FBI TWA CIA IBM But you didn’t know that you can handle 4 chunks
39 Duration Peterson and Peterson (1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. CH?? The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec. CHJ MKT HIJ …
44 Memory Stores Quick Look Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM EncodingCopyPhonemicSemantic CapacityUnlimited7±2 ChunksVery Large Duration0.25 sec.20 sec.Years
45 Storing Memories in the Brain 1.Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed previous research data showing, through brain stimulation, that memories were etched into the brain and found that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. 2.Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze. Mapping Memory in the brain
46 Synaptic Changes In Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning. Photo: Scientific American Link to AplysiaLink to Aplysia at nova
47 Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses. Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov Courtesy of Dominique Muller Link to Memory in action at Nova 3:07
48 Stress Hormones & Memory Flashbulb memories are clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events. Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Scott Barbour/ Getty Images
49 Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows.
50 Hippocampus Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories. Weidenfield & Nicolson archives Clive Wearing at AM Clive on YT
51 Fig. 7-23, p. 286
52 No New Memories Amnesias Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Retrograde amnesia Surgery After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but could not make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Memory Intact How memory works at NovaHow memory works at Nova 10:15 Memory intact Surgery No old memories
53 Implicit & Explicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). C B A Towers of Hanoi Link
54 Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.
55 Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. Spanky’s Yearbook Archive
56 Recognition In recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.) 1.Name the capital of France. a.Brussels b.Rome c.London d.Paris
57 Recall In recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) 1.The capital of Louisiana is ______. New Orleans….
58 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. Fire Truck truck red fire heat smoke smell water hose
59 Information is retrieved from memory through spreading activation Semantic Networks
60 Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.
61 Memory Test #2 Memorize the following words (List 1) read, pages, letters, school, study, reading, stories, sheets, cover, pen, pencil, magazine, paper, words
62 Memory Test #2 Now…write down any words from the following list which were on the List 1: house, pencil, apple, shoe, book, flag, rock, train, ocean, hill, music, water, glass, school
63 Memory Test #2 Did you say that "book" was on list 1? Only pencil and school were on list 1. Why do so many people think “book” was on List 1?
64 Memory Test #3 Memorize the following words (List 1) sheets, pillow, mattress, blanket, comfortable, room, dream, lay, chair, rest, tired, night, dark, time
65 Memory Test #3 Now…write down any words from the following list which were on the List 1: door, tree, eye, song, pillow, juice, orange, radio, rain, car, sleep, cat, dream, eat
66 Memory Test #3 Did you say that "sleep" was on list 1? Only pillow and dream were on List 1 Why do so many people think “sleep” was on List 1? Constructive Memory This is an example of a false memory. Using semantic encoding is good, but it can lead to semantic errors. Many people get a “false positive” error when a word shows up in List 2 that is semantically similar to many words in List 1.
67 Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers
68 Context Effects After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context (Rovee-Collier, 1993). Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier, Rutgers University
70 Retrieving Incomplete Knowledge Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon –“The answer is on the tip-of-my-tongue… It starts with Q….” Feeling-of-knowing Experience – If you don’t know the answer, how likely is it that you could recognize the answer? People are good at this. They “know it” but can’t retrieve it.
71 Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood (state-dependent memory). Jorgen Schytte/ Still Pictures Our memories are mood-congruent. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues.