Presentation on theme: "Creating Trauma Informed Systems of Care for Human Service Settings"— Presentation transcript:
1 Creating Trauma Informed Systems of Care for Human Service Settings What is Trauma and Why Must We Address It?We’re now going to be talking about trauma informed care. Systems of care that are trauma informed are environments that foster safety , healing and recovery.Joan Gillece, PhDNational Center for Trauma Informed Care
2 What is Trauma? Definition (NASMHPD, 2006) The experience of violence and victimization including sexual abuse, physical abuse, severe neglect, loss, domestic violence and/or the witnessing of violence, terrorism or disastersDSM IV-TR (APA, 2000)Person’s response involves intense fear, horror and helplessnessExtreme stress that overwhelms the person’s capacity to cope
3 Definition of Trauma Informed Care Mental Health Treatment that incorporates:An appreciation for the high prevalence of traumatic experiences in persons who receive mental health servicesA thorough understanding of the profound neurological, biological, psychological and social effects of trauma and violence on the individual(Jennings, 2004)Care that is stabilizing and addresses physiologic dysregulation
4 Prevalence of Trauma Mental Health Population – United States 90% of public mental health clients in have been exposed to trauma(Mueser et al., 2004, Mueser et al., 1998)51-98% of public mental health clients in have been exposed to trauma(Goodman et al., 1997, Mueser et al., 1998)Most have multiple experiences of trauma97% of homeless women with SMI have experienced severe physical & sexual abuse – 87% experience this abuse both in childhood and adulthood(Goodman et al., 1997)Rosenberg and his colleagues from Dartmouth University who have done a good deal of research on people in the public mental health system found that 90% of these individuals have been exposed to traumaGoodman, in a separate study, found that 51-98% were exposed.Meusar and Felitti identified that most have had multiple experiences of various types of traumatic stressHomeless women are particularly vulnerable to rape
5 Prevalence of Trauma Child Mental Health/Youth Detention Population - U.S. Canadian study of 187 adolescents reported 42% had PTSDAmerican study of 100 adolescent inpatients; 93% had trauma histories and 32% had PTSD70-90% incarcerated girls – sexual, physical, emotional abuse(DOC, 1998, Chesney & Sheldon, 1991)In terms of the prevalence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, the best defined and most clearly understood trauma diagnosis, among people with serious mental illness –
6 Prevalence of Trauma Substance Abuse Population – U.S. Up to two-thirds of men and women in SA treatment report childhood abuse & neglect (SAMSHA CSAT, 2000)Study of male veterans in SA inpatient unit77% exposed to severe childhood trauma58% history of lifetime PTSD (Triffleman et al., 1995)50% of women in SA treatment have history of rape or incest(Governor's Commission on Sexual and Domestic Violence, Commonwealth of MA, 2006)
7 Other Critical Trauma Correlates: The Relationship of Childhood Trauma to Adult Health Adverse Childhood Events (ACEs) have serious health consequencesAdoption of health risk behaviors as coping mechanismseating disorders, smoking, substance abuse, self harm, sexual promiscuitySevere medical conditions: heart disease, pulmonary disease, liver disease, STDs, GYN cancerEarly Death (Felitti et al., 1998)
8 Adverse Childhood Experiences Recurrent and severe physical abuseRecurrent and severe emotional abuseSexual abuseGrowing up in household with:Alcohol or drug userMember being imprisonedMentally ill, chronically depressed, or institutionalized memberMother being treated violentlyBoth biological parents absentEmotional or physical abuse(Fellitti et al, 1998)
9 ACE Study“Male child with an ACE score of 6 has a 4600% increase in likelihood of later becoming an IV drug user when compared to a male child with an ACE score of 0. Might heroin be used for the relief of profound anguish dating back to childhood experiences? Might it be the best coping device that an individual can find?” (Felitti et al, 1998)
10 ACE StudyIs drug abuse self-destructive or is it a desperate attempt at self-healing, albeit while accepting a significant future risk?” (Felitti, et al, 1998)
11 ACE Study“ Addiction is best viewed as an understandable, unconscious, compulsive use of psychoactive materials in response to abnormal, prior life experiences, most of which are concealed by shame, secrecy, and social taboo.” (Felitti et al, 1998)
12 What does the prevalence data tell us? The majority of adults and children in psychiatric treatment settings have trauma historiesA sizable percentage of people with substance use disorders have traumatic stress symptoms that interfere with achieving or maintaining sobrietyA sizable percentage of adults and children in the prison or juvenile justice system have trauma histories(Hodas, 2004, Cusack et al., Mueser et al., 1998, Lipschitz et al., 1999, NASMHPD, 1998)Traumatic exposure is epidemic among adults and children in the mental health system.Many clinicians in the US see PTSD as the only trauma-related diagnosis. Increasingly, we are appreciating that a range of other disorders can be directly related to trauma exposure or individuals might suffer from such co-occurring such as substance abuse, affective illness, personality disorders and psychotic disorders.
13 What does the prevalence data tell us? Growing body of research on the relationship between victimization and later offendingMany people with trauma histories have overlapping problems with mental health, addictions, physical health, and are victims or perpetrators of crimeVictims of trauma are found across all systems of care(Hodas, 2004, Cusack et al., Muesar et al., 1998, Lipschitz et al., 1999, NASMHPD, 1998)Traumatic exposure is epidemic among adults and children in the mental health system.Many clinicians in the US see PTSD as the only trauma-related diagnosis. Increasingly, we are appreciating that a range of other disorders can be directly related to trauma exposure or individuals might suffer from such co-occurring such as substance abuse, affective illness, personality disorders and psychotic disorders.
14 Therefore……We need to presume the clients we serve have a history of traumatic stress and exercise “universal precautions” by creating systems of care that are trauma-informed(Hodas, 2005)
15 Trauma Informed Non Trauma Informed Recognition of high prevalence of traumaRecognition of primary and co-occurring trauma diagnosesAssess for traumatic histories & symptomsRecognition of culture and practices that are re-traumatizingLack of education on trauma prevalence & “universal” precautionsOver-diagnosis of Schizophrenia & Bipolar D., Conduct D. & singular addictionsCursory or no trauma assessment“Tradition of Toughness” valued as best care approach
16 Trauma Informed Non Trauma Informed Power/control minimized - constant attention to cultureCaregivers/supporters – collaborationAddress training needs of staff to improve knowledge & sensitivityKeys, security uniforms, staff demeanor, tone of voiceRule enforcers – compliance“Patient-blaming” as fallback position without trainingOthers know what is best – paternalistic modelSelf-injury – effective as a strategy for flashbacks, terror, numbinghelps survivor regain controlclient who says it makes her feel strong instead of powerlesshurt self instead of otherstrigger or stop dissociationconvert emotional pain to physical painExample about a woman’s experience. Complicated PTSD and Bipolar DO. Laura Prescott discussed the difference between a trauma informed vs trauma uninformed systemEnvironment felt unsafe. Large men – loud voices – keys displayed – doors locked. This is a woman who had been locked in her room and repeatedly abused by her father. It is late evening, the time when she was typically abused. A staff member comes into the unit and yells to another staff person. Large man with keys on belt. Individual triggered – re-experience the abuse in her body feels unsafe. To manage - she finds a paper clip and starts digging into her skin. Three men jump on her to restrain her – put in four point restraints. Alternatively, gets triggered due to bedtime (internal trigger) – she starts to pace – the nurses approaches her to talk – she grabs a paperclip and starts to dig into her skin.
17 Trauma Informed Non Trauma Informed Staff understand function of behavior (rage, repetition-compulsion, self-injury)Objective, neutral languageTransparent systems open to outside partiesBehavior seen as intentionally provocativeLabeling language: manipulative, needy, “attention-seeking”Closed system – advocates discouragedOthers know what is best – paternalistic modelSelf-injury – “valiant attempts” (Sandy Bloom) at coping -effective as a strategy for flashbacks, terror, numbinghelps survivor regain controlclient who says it makes her feel strong instead of powerlesshurt self instead of otherstrigger or stop dissociationconvert emotional pain to physical pain(Fallot & Harris, 2002; Cook et al., 2002, Ford, 2003, Cusack et al., Jennings, 1998, Prescott, 2000)