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Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Program 1. Increasing the reliability of grain supply.

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Presentation on theme: "Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Program 1. Increasing the reliability of grain supply."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Program 1. Increasing the reliability of grain supply and reducing feed costs.

3 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Mike Taverner Program Leader for Program 1 Leader sub-program 1a – Innovative grain production

4 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Relative business indicators Business indicator USANZAustraliaBrazil COP (A$/kg) HFC- CW Carcass Wt./sow/y (kg) Feed ($/tonne) < 220

5 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Research program 1 Investment in this area will lead to reduced production costs through: 1.More reliable and consistent protein and energy supplies; 2.Innovative grain, pulse and oilseed production; 3.Developing novel ingredients.

6 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Program 1. Increasing the reliability of grain supply and reducing feed costs. TARGETS 1.Reduce average feed costs by 10%; 2.Increase the DE of grains by 1.0 MJ/kg

7 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Southern Australia Summer SE Qld Summer WHEAT$328$188$340$190 BARLEY$340$182$350$195 SORGHUMn/a $313$170 LUPINS$335$360n/a PEAS$340$282n/a CANOLA MEAL$289$294$340$300 SOYABEAN MEAL 48.0$409$439$420$450 FULL FAT SOYBEAN MEAL$560$760$540$505 MILLRUN 16%$213$178$235$188

8 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Program 1: Securing more reliable and consistent supplies of protein and energy for pig diets Subprogram 1a: Innovative grain production Subprogram 1b: Quality assessment of feed ingredients Subprogram 1c: Wider range of feed ingredients for use in pig diets

9 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program What we are doing about it …… Improving grain production

10 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

11 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

12 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Site 5 Walgett Site 1 Pittsworth Site 4 Inverell Site 6 Narrabri Site 7 Breeza Site 8 Curban Site 3 Weemelah Site 2 “Lundarva”

13 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program NIR Calibrations

14 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Wheat Barley Triticale Sorghum DE (MJ/kg DM)

15 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

16 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program The ideal cereal grain for pigs should allow: complete digestion of starch by the end of the small intestines, a high proportion of starch digestion occurring in the upper section of the small intestines, thin and fragile endosperm cell walls with low amounts of non-starch polysaccharides and having a short chain-length

17 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program CRC projects TRITICALE1A 102 BARLEY1A 101 PEAS1A 104

18 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program “…… substantial increases in the availability of energy ( MJ/kg) could be derived for pigs if more energy were digested in the small intestines”.

19 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program What we are doing about it …… Improving grain production Improving grain processing

20 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Projects in sub-program 1b: Processing methods for improving the utilization of cereal grains by pigs. Canola meal value chain quality improvement. NIRS calibrations for predicting the nutritional quality of feed ingredients for pigs. Determining the nutritive value of weather damaged grains for pigs using NIRS Effects of genetics and processing on the value of sorghums for ethanol production and pig nutrition

21 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program What we are doing about it …… Improving grain production Improving grain processing Creating supply chains

22 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Sub-program 1a GRAINSEARCH1A-103 Practical guidelines for the production and supply chain arrangements to deliver new and existing cereal and cultivars for the pig industry

23 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program What we are doing about it …… Improving grain production Improving grain processing Creating supply chains Finding alternatives

24 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Sub-program 1c REVIEWS Novel and alternative feeds for use in the pig industry in Australia Review of Promising Novel Crops for pigs

25 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Novel feeds workshop: priority areas Novel by-products : 1.DDGS 2.Glycerine/biodiesel 3.Regional analysis of needs & opportunities 4.Fruit & vegetable waste 5.Food waste treatment 6.Dairy sludge Novel crops: Pearl millet Pearl lupins Root crops Forage crops and styloanthes ANF management

26 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Program 1 …… Improving grain production Improving grain processing Creating supply chains Finding alternatives

27 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

28 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program What is Triticale Man made crop Cross Between Durum Wheat and Rye AABBRR - Hexaploid

29 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program TRITICALE Improved Production Through Breeding and Agronomy

30 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Project Aims Improved Yields –Breeding – Inbred and Hybrids –Agronomy Improved Quality –DE, I/F Ratio, Intake – NIR

31 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Progress Yield Trials and Rust Assessment of New Inbreds NIR Testing of a Subset of Lines.

32 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Grain Yield of Spring Triticale

33 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Pig DE (MJ/kg)

34 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Pig I/F Ratio

35 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Line Pig FDE (MJ/ kg as fed)Rank Pig I/F DE ratio Ran k Pig FDE Inta ke Ind exRank Yield (t/h a)% TaharaRankSRYR JRCT JCRT ,62 JRCT JRCT JRCT JRCT Treat Prime Tahara Everest Kosciuszko Credit Abacus Tickit lsd 1% (5%)

36 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Lines from Dual-Purpose Program Jackie – Released 2000 Breakwell – % higher yield AT528 – % higher yield AT574 – % higher yield.

37 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Semi-dwarfs and Hybrids Semi-dwarfs – anticipate a 10-20% increase in yield. Hybrids – cytolplasmic male sterile – male sterile x maintainer (T.timophevii) (normal wheat cytolplasm)

38 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Hybrids Cross ms x Restorer = Hybrid Tested using old maintainer Visual assessment at Cowra rated hybrids better than corresponding inbreds

39 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Hybrids Hybrid with JRCT101 was rated as the best plot JRCT74 appeared to be a maintainer. Produce hybrid from these two lines.

40 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Hybrids Should be able to achieve 20% heterosis Ultimate aim to produce a semi-dwarf hybrid.

41 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

42 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Pork CRC Annual Conference November 23, 2006 GRAINSEARCH

43 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Overview AIM: To supply high yielding varieties with superior agronomy and predictable price, quality and supply

44 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Grainsearch Two areas of investigation Varieties and agronomy –increased yield Supply Chain Groups –variety –agronomy –pricing & delivery

45 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Examples Charles IFE Group –Varieties –Agronomy –Delivery – over supply last year, (no pricing) Western Plains Pork (WPP) –Includes pricing

46 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

47 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Grain supply pricing Understanding our wheat price CBOT Futures Exchange Rate Basis (Domestic effect) A$ per tonne at a given location and time

48 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 3 components Grain can be priced by locking in all 3 components at different times –To protect against drought prices –To take advantage of exchange rate –To take advantage of world supply conditions

49 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Western Plains Pork Case study – 05/06 April 05agreed to supply/purchase at 0 basis April 05growers locked in CBOT futures at 3.70/bu April 05WPP locked in exchange rate at 76c May 05WPP locked in CBOT futures at 3.20/bu Dec 05Growers locked in exchange rate at 74c

50 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Western Plains Pork Case study – 05/06 (contd) Final Prices GrowerWPP 3.70Futures cExchange rate.76c 0Basis0 $183/t$155/t

51 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Wheat CBOT

52 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Western Plains Pork Case study – 06/07 March, 2006 –WPP buys wheat with swaps from the bank at $209/t for Dec 06 (cash settled) –WPP buys basis (i.e. agreement to deliver grain) from grower co-op at -$15/t –WPP fixed price $194/t

53 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Pricing mechanisms used within supply chain groups Advantages –Group of farmers committed to growing quality feed grains –Both consumer and producer are able to have ability to make their own price decisions - “Not competing” –Protection from drought price fluctuations –More feed grains grown due to longer term price certainty / more stable market

54 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

55 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program End user requirement re feed supply Guaranteed supply Quality Pricing –Avoiding extremes –Budgeting margin (price maker)

56 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program WPP experience Outline Past and present Lessons Where to?

57 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program At present What characterises the grain supply side? –Uncertain demand –Uncertain price Why would a grain grower wish to be a dedicated feed grain producer?

58 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program At present Grainsearch direction to date –Encourage dedicated feed grain production with; –Superior varieties and agronomy Increased production= increased supply ?

59 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Future Direction Changing industry mindsets –Grain producers, end users and marketers –Encourages and rewards feed grain growers in a similar manner to competing millers & maltsters

60 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Future Direction A production system that encourages industry adoption of; –Dedicated feed grain production –Supply chain group establishment Superior varieties & agronomy, –The use of grain price risk management products Assured delivery & pricing – Competes with milling / malting industry

61 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Thank – you! Thank you!

62 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

63 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Project 1B Canola Meal Value Chain Quality Improvement Jointly Funded by Pork CRC & Australian Oilseed Federation John Spragg - JCS Solutions Rod Mailer - NSW DPI

64 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Relevant Pork CRC outputs addressed Investigate alternate processing techniques for oil extraction of canola seeds to increase bioavailability of lysine & NIR calibrations developed for measuring reactive lysine in canola meal – application and use of the NIR calibration

65 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Project Objectives – Stage 1 1.Identification of variation in nutritional quality of canola meal produced within Australian crushing plants. 2.Establish a reactive lysine NIR calibration for finished meal with application for further research and commercial use. 3.Gain information on canola meal processing conditions and their impact upon meal quality.

66 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Crushing Plant Processing Conditions Variable Seedcake into Screw Press temperature Seedcake exit Screw Press temperature Desolventising Toaster exit temperature Post DT temperature Finished Meal temperature 8-10% decline in lysine dig. due to heat processing Crushing Stage and Lysine Digestibility - broilers

67 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Methodology Co-operation of crushing plants to take samples 8 plants 3 Solvent extraction 4 Expeller 1 Cold press expeller Sampling = 270 samples collected 3 time periods – weeks 3 days within each time period 3 samplings per day Sequenced sampling Seed, Expeller, Post Solvent, Post DT, Finished Meal

68 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Cold PressExpellerSolvent No Oil% as isMean Min Max Std Protein% as isMean Min Max Std Results Summary – Canola Meal Samples

69 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

70 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Cold PressExpellerSolvent Ash% as isMean Crude Fibre% as isMean ADF% as isMean NDF% as isMean Bulk Densitykg/hlMean CHO% as isMean Glucosinolatesumoles/gMean Sinapineg/kgMean Linoleic Acid% as isMean Other – Tannins, Minerals, Amino Acids, Fatty Acid Profile, Phytate P

71 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Canadian Canola Meal Glucosinolates ave. 16 umoles/g Rapeseed Meal umoles/g

72 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Gross reactive lysine content was shown to be a good indicator of true ileal digestible reactive lysine content (and thus the degree of heat damage) van Barneveld et al 1999 Capacity to utilise NIR calibrations to quantify the extent of heat damage upon protein quality Effect of Processing upon Protein Quality

73 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Canola meal lysine content (g/kg, air-dry) Cold-pressedExpellerSolvent van Barneveld et al 1999 Total Lysine Reactive Lysine Reverted Lysine ‘heat damaged’ 25.3%36.9%39.1% 2006 AOF/Pork CRC Total Lysine Reactive Lysine Reverted Lysine ‘heat damaged’ 13.9%21.0%23.5% 8-12% Lysine ‘loss’ due to heat processing

74 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Processing Conditions Seedcake expeller exit temp °C Cold Press through to high temp processing Desolventising toaster exit temp °C Expeller plants use heat and pressure to expel oil Solvent plants use solvent extraction to increase oil recovery. Heat damage is occurring in both expeller and DT areas.

75 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 1.Identification of Canola Meal Quality Variation Work with crushers to address variation - AOF 2. Reactive Lysine NIR Calibration Enhanced Reactive Lysine NIR calibration Lower cost method of assessing canola meal quality Tool for further work in crushing plants 3. Industry Canola Meal Nutritional Guide Publication of results for dissemination to Australian animal feed industries Detailed analysis results for use in feed formulation Research Outcomes

76 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Stage 2 – Subject to funding approval 1.Optimising processing conditions at crushing plants – canola meal a)On site modifications – crusher co-oper. b)Meal quality rapidly assessed at low cost – NIR 2.Livestock trials to validate data a)Pigs (poultry, cattle) b)Protein digestibility & energy 3.Publication of guidelines for crushers 4.Extension to assess imported soybean meal quality

77 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

78 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Enhancing the value of sorghum for pigs 1b John Black Pork CRC subprogram 1b coordinator

79 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Energy value of grains for animals Cereal grains are fed to livestock as a source of energy –Available (digestible energy) content (MJ/kg) –Intake (kg/d) influenced by rate of passage –Available energy intake (MJ/d) – total energy available for production Available energy expressed as: DE for pigs, but proportion digested in small intestines is important for determining total energy available

80 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Premium Grains for Livestock Program Grains vary widely in DE Range in DE (MJ/kg DM) for pigs WheatBarleyTriticale Sorghum Variation in DE 3-4 MJ/kg; less for sorghum Sorghum has highest DE

81 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Sorghum digested differently in pigs compared with poultry Pigs Broilers Ileal DE Faecal DE/AME Ileal/faecal Broilers digest more energy from sorghum in small intestine Opportunity to increase digestion of sorghum in small intestine of pigs & gain 1-2MJ/kg in available energy

82 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program PGLP Results No correlation between DE and intake

83 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Protein Matrix Sorghum

84 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Protein Matrix Sorghum

85 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Research strategies 1.Goals: Increase digestion of sorghum starch in SI of pigs Increase intake of sorghum based diets Improve energy value of DDGS from ethanol production 2.Research Strategies: Select from ~ 200 lines grown in different environments samples with highest starch digestibility and intake 3.Deliverables: Identify sorghum lines with enhanced value for pigs and ethanol DNA markers for breeding high value sorghum for pigs & ethanol NIR calibrations for identifying high starch availability, intake and high energy DDGS Processing methods, including enzymes, for improving sorghum value

86 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Micro-waved sorghum

87 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Name: Avril Finn Masters of Tropical Animal Science James Cook University, Townsville Start Date: February 2006 Title: Improving utilisation of sorghum grain by pigs through feed additives

88 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Improving utilisation of sorghum grain by pigs through feed additives Sorghums to be selected and assessed by: NIR Weaner trials Grower trials Ileal and faecal DE

89 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Additives to be tested for improving sorghum : Enzymes – protease, amylase and phytase Emulsifier (with surfactant properties) in combination with enzyme; Copper sulphate

90 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Weaner trial 7.5kg pigs 3 week feeding 20 pigs / treatment 32 treatments / grains At QAF

91 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Preliminary Results Feed conversion ratio

92 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Preliminary Results Rate of gain

93 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

94 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Novel Feed Materials for the Australian Pig Industry Sub program 1C.

95 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program CRC Sub-Program 1c What is the potential for novel feed ingredients? Wider range of feed ingredients More reliable, consistent and cost competitive energy and protein supplies Reduce variation and average feed costs for the pig industry

96 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Starting point Two separate reports commissioned Experience and contacts in respective fields 1.“Novel and alternative feeds for use in the pig industry in Australia” –Victorian Department of Primary Industries –Cherie Collins, Ray King, Frank Dunshea, Paul Eason, Chris Hofmeyr 2.“Review of promising novel crops for pigs” –Queensland Department of Primary Industries and West Australian Department of Agriculture –Danny Singh, John Kopinski and Jay Kim, Bruce Mullan

97 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Novel feeds workshop: priority areas Novel by-products : 1.DDGS 2.Glycerine/biodiesel 3.Regional analysis of needs & opportunities 4.Fruit & vegetable waste 5.Food waste treatment 6.Dairy sludge Novel crops: Pearl millet Pearl lupins Root crops Forage crops and styloanthes ANF management

98 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Areas for immediate focus 1.DDGS 2.Pearl Millet 3.Desk top studies a)Regional analysis of needs & opportunities b)Fruit and vegetable waste c)Root and forage crops d)Pearl lupins e)Food waste treatment and management 4.Glycerol 5.Dairy sludge

99 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 1.Ethanol production and DDGS

100 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Dried Distillers Grains & Solubles Highest priority material –Potential scale of industry? –Legislated inclusion of ethanol or industry subsidies will affect the overall scale Competition for grain and likely upward effect on energy costs Significant supply of DDGS as a by- product

101 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Ethanol industry players Manildra, Nowra NSW is the only current working plant of scale –Australian Ethanol Ltd promoting another working plant in Southern NSW inside 2 years –Numerous other proposed plants throughout eastern Australia Ethanol Producers Association Understand and influence the development of the ethanol industry to benefit the pig industry

102 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program What we do & don’t know about DDGS More than one waste stream –Dried distillers grains –Solubles (liquid) Number of grains can be used as feedstocks –Potential for different quality/value Manufacturing process involves some heating and drying Sometimes blended with dry materials Will there be differences between manufacturing plants?

103 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program What we do & don’t know about DDGS Colour, protein, nutrient content, availability and handling properties can change substantially Process concentrates residual components of the grain –Fibre –Gums –Mycotoxins? Accuracy of book values?? –Lack of independent values for Aust. material

104 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Future CRC Programs 1. Collect DDGS from various feedstocks and plants –Establish accepted feeding values –Establish appropriate economic values Grain varieties that maximise the quality of DDGS - GRDC Develop quality programs and rapid analysis techniques (NIR) to measure quality/value

105 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Future CRC Programs 2. Establish maximum inclusion rates for various class of pigs Investigate enzymes and technology to maximise feeding value Quantify mycotoxin load Establish working relationships within the Ethanol industry Feasibility for importation of DDGS from U.S.A

106 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 2. Pearl Millet Feeding values established and accepted Agronomic performance equivalent or better than sorghum Adoption by pig producers and crop growers has been poor

107 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 2. Pearl Millet - CRC focus Focus on adoption strategies and promotional tools Closed loop systems ideal –growers, agronomy, feed and pig producers Develop breeding programs to increase stocks of higher yielding varieties Investigate potential for widening the growing area

108 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 3a. Regional analysis study. Majority of by-products and some crops tend to be region specific Likely to be different nutrient shortages and surpluses between regions Different unit cost cost pressures on a nutrient basis for pig diets throughout Australia

109 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 3a. Regional analysis study. Parametric studies to define nutrient costs for specific regions –Various classes of pig –Present and future Need model of supply and demand for all potential feed commodities –Dairy Aust., Meat and Livestock Aust. –Ethanol?

110 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 3b.Fruit and vegetable waste Large volumes of vegetable waste produced regularly –Citrus, apple/pear, tomato, grape, olive etc. –Volumes produced exceed capacity of ruminant industry’s consumption –Typically considered poor feed value for monogastrics Conduct review on potential for enzyme technology (new or near) to enable utilisation of vegetable waste

111 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 3c. Root and forage crops Crops with highest potential to decrease feed cost are those with highest yields –Root and forage crops tend to have high biomass –May have some specific regional agronomic advantage –Maybe specific to certain class of pig –Have different management and handling properties compared conventional materials A review on the feasibility of root and forage crops for feeding and handling prospects

112 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 3d. Pearl Lupins Dedicated feed grain High protein and oil content (low hull and high kernel content) Anti nutritional factors (alkaloid) appear to be a limiting factor Low alkaloid varieties tend to be lower yielding Small amount of grain available

113 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 3d. Pearl Lupins – CRC focus Obtain samples to conduct chemical analysis and determine alkaloid content Determine agronomic potential –trials in eastern Australia Expand crops availability through breeding programs –GRDC, Pulse Aust., WA Dept Ag Determine animal performance

114 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 3e. Food waste treatment Significant amount of food waste generated –High level of logistical and disposal problems –Land fill restrictions APL and CRC to determine long term feasibility of undertaking partnerships in food waste management

115 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program 4. Glycerol By-product of manufacturing biodiesel Relatively high in energy Small number of decentralised plants

116 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program

117 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program


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