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Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Understanding Fiscal Policy What is fiscal policy and how does it affect the economy? How is the federal budget related to fiscal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Understanding Fiscal Policy What is fiscal policy and how does it affect the economy? How is the federal budget related to fiscal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Understanding Fiscal Policy What is fiscal policy and how does it affect the economy? How is the federal budget related to fiscal policy? How do expansionary and contractionary fiscal policies affect the economy? What are the limits of fiscal policy?

2 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Fiscal policy is the federal government’s use of taxing and spending to keep the economy stable. What Is Fiscal Policy? The tremendous flow of cash into and out of the economy due to government spending and taxing has a large impact on the economy. Fiscal policy decisions, such as how much to spend and how much to tax, are among the most important decisions the federal government makes.

3 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Fiscal Policy and the Federal Budget The federal budget is a written document indicating the amount of money the government expects to receive for a certain year and authorizing the amount the government can spend that year. The federal government prepares a new budget for each fiscal year. A fiscal year is a twelve-month period that is not necessarily the same as the January – December calendar year. The fiscal year for the American federal system is October 1 st through September 30 th.

4 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Creating the Federal Budget Federal agencies send requests for money to the Office of Management and Budget. The Office of Management and Budget works with the President to create a budget. In January or February, the President sends this budget to Congress. Congress makes changes to the budget and sends this new budget to the President. The President signs the budget into law. The President vetoes the budget. If Congress cannot get a majority to override the President’s veto, Congress and the President must work together to create a new, compromise, budget. 2⁄32⁄3 The Budget Process Congress and the White House work together to develop a federal budget.

5 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Phases of Business Cycle (Chapter 12) Expansion An expansion is a period of economic growth as measured by a rise in real GDP. Economic growth is a steady, long-term rise in real GDP. Peak When real GDP stops rising, the economy has reached its peak, the height of its economic expansion. Contraction Following its peak, the economy enters a period of contraction, an economic decline marked by a fall in real GDP. A recession is a prolonged economic contraction. An especially long or severe recession may be called a depression. Trough The trough is the lowest point of economic decline, when real GDP stops falling.

6 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu The total level of government spending can be changed to help increase or decrease the output of the economy. Fiscal Policy and the Economy Expansionary Policies Fiscal policies that try to increase output are known as expansionary policies. Contractionary Policies Fiscal policies intended to decrease output are called contractionary policies. What 2 ways can ‘the government’ implement expansionary or contractionary policies? Answer: Spending and Taxes

7 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Effects of Expansionary Fiscal Policy Total output in the economy High outputLow output High prices Low prices Price level Aggregate supply Original aggregate demand Lower output, lower prices Higher output, higher prices Aggregate demand with higher government spending Expansionary Fiscal Policies Increasing Government Spending If the federal government increases its spending or buys more goods and services, it triggers a chain of events that raise output and creates jobs. Cutting Taxes When the government cuts taxes, consumers and businesses have more money to spend or invest. This increases demand and output.

8 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Effects of Contractionary Fiscal Policy Total output in the economy High outputLow output High prices Low prices Price level Aggregate supply Higher output, higher prices Original aggregate demand Lower output, lower prices Aggregate demand with lower government spending Contractionary Fiscal Policies Decreasing Government Spending If the federal government spends less, or buys fewer goods and services, it triggers a chain of events that may lead to slower GDP growth. Raising Taxes If the federal government increases taxes, consumers and businesses have fewer dollars to spend or save. This also slows growth of GDP.

9 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Limits of Fiscal Policy Difficulty of Changing Spending Levels –In general, significant changes in federal spending must come from the small part of the federal budget that includes discretionary spending. Predicting the Future –Understanding the current state of the economy and predicting future economic performance is very difficult, and economists often disagree. This lack of agreement makes it difficult for lawmakers to know when or if to enact changes in fiscal policy. Delayed Results –Even when fiscal policy changes are enacted, it takes time for the changes to take effect. Political Pressures –Pressures from the voters can hinder fiscal policy decisions, such as decisions to cut spending or raising taxes.

10 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Coordinating Fiscal Policy For fiscal policies to be effective, various branches and levels of government must plan and work together, which is sometimes difficult. Federal policies need to take into account regional and state economic differences. Federal fiscal policy also needs to be coordinated with the monetary policies of the Federal Reserve.

11 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Want to connect to the PHSchool.com link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! Section 1 Assessment 1. Fiscal policy is (a) the federal government’s use of taxing and spending to keep the economy stable. (b) the federal government’s use of taxing and spending to make the economy unstable. (c) a plan by the government to spend its revenues. (d) a check by Congress over the President. 2. Two types of expansionary policies are (a) raising taxes and increasing government spending. (b) raising taxes and decreasing government spending. (c) cutting taxes and decreasing government spending. (d) cutting taxes and increasing government spending.

12 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Want to connect to the PHSchool.com link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! Section 1 Assessment 1. Fiscal policy is (a) the federal government’s use of taxing and spending to keep the economy stable. (b) the federal government’s use of taxing and spending to make the economy unstable. (c) a plan by the government to spend its revenues. (d) a check by Congress over the President. 2. Two types of expansionary policies are (a) raising taxes and increasing government spending. (b) raising taxes and decreasing government spending. (c) cutting taxes and decreasing government spending. (d) cutting taxes and increasing government spending.

13 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Understanding Fiscal Policy What is fiscal policy and how does it affect the economy? How is the federal budget related to fiscal policy? How do expansionary and contractionary fiscal policies affect the economy? What are the limits of fiscal policy?

14 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Chapter 15 Section 1 Quiz after the bell

15 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Fiscal Policy Options What are classical, Keynesian, and supply-side economics? What is the multiplier effect? What role do automatic stabilizers play? What role has fiscal policy played in American history?

16 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Classical Economics The idea that markets regulate themselves is at the heart of a school of thought known as classical economics. Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and Thomas Malthus are all considered classical economists. The Great Depression that began in 1929 challenged the ideas of classical economics.

17 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Keynesian Economics Keynesian economics is the idea that the economy is composed of three sectors — individuals, businesses, and government — and that government actions can make up for changes in the other two. Keynesian economists argue that fiscal policy can be used to fight both recession or depression and inflation. Keynes believed that the government could increase spending during a recession to counteract the decrease in consumer spending.

18 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu The multiplier effect in fiscal policy is the idea that every dollar change in fiscal policy creates a greater than one dollar change in economic activity. The Multiplier Effect For example, if the federal government increases spending by $10 billion, there will be an initial increase in GDP of $10 billion. The businesses that sold the $10 billion in goods and services to the government will spend part of their earnings, and so on. When all of the rounds of spending are added up, the government spending leads to an increase of $50 billion in GDP.

19 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Automatic Stabilizers A stable economy is one in which there are no rapid changes in economic factors. Certain fiscal policy tools can be used to help ensure a stable economy. An automatic stabilizer is a government tax or spending category that changes automatically in response to changes in GDP or income.

20 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Laffer Curve High revenues Low revenues 100% High taxes 0% Low taxes 50% Tax revenues Tax rate a b c Supply-Side Economics Supply-side economics stresses the influence of taxation on the economy. Supply-siders believe that taxes have a strong, negative influence on output. The Laffer curve shows how both high and low tax revenues can produce the same tax revenues.

21 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Fiscal Policy in American History The Great Depression –Franklin D. Roosevelt increased government spending on a number of programs with the goal of ending the Depression. World War II –Government spending increased dramatically as the country geared up for war. This spending helped lift the country out of the Depression. The 1960s –John F. Kennedy’s administration proposed cuts to the personal and business income taxes in an effort to stimulate demand and bring the economy closer to full productive capacity. Government spending also increased because of the Vietnam war. Supply-Side Policies in the 1980s –In 1981, Ronald Reagan’s administration helped pass a bill to reduce taxes by 25 percent over three years.

22 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Want to connect to the PHSchool.com link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! Section 2 Assessment 1. What are the two main economic problems that Keynesian economics seeks to address? (a) business and personal taxes (b) military and other defense spending (c) periods of recession or depression and inflation (d) foreign aid and domestic spending 2. Government taxes or spending categories that change in response to changes in GDP or income are called (a) fiscal policy. (b) automatic stabilizers. (c) income equalizers. (d) expansionary aids.

23 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Want to connect to the PHSchool.com link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! Section 2 Assessment 1. What are the two main economic problems that Keynesian economics seeks to address? (a) business and personal taxes (b) military and other defense spending (c) periods of recession or depression and inflation (d) foreign aid and domestic spending 2. Government taxes or spending categories that change in response to changes in GDP or income are called (a) fiscal policy. (b) automatic stabilizers. (c) income equalizers. (d) expansionary aids.

24 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Budget Deficits and the National Debt What are budget surpluses and budget deficits? How does the government respond to budget deficits? What are the effects of the national debt? How can government reduce budget deficits and the national debt?

25 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu A balanced budget is a budget in which revenues are equal to spending. Balancing the Budget Budget Surpluses A budget surplus occurs when revenues exceed expenditures. Budget Deficits A budget deficit occurs when expenditures exceed revenue.

26 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Responding to Budget Deficits Creating Money The government can pay for budget deficits by creating money. Creating money, however, increases demand for goods and services and can lead to inflation. Borrowing Money The government can also pay for budget deficits by borrowing money. The government borrows money by selling bonds, such as United States Savings Bonds, Treasury bonds, Treasury bills, or Treasury notes. The government then pays the bondholders back at a later date.

27 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu The National Debt The Difference Between Deficit and Debt The deficit is amount the government owes for one fiscal year. The national debt is the total amount that the government owes. Measuring the National Debt In dollar terms, the debt is extremely large: $5 trillion at the end of the twentieth century. Economists often measure the debt as a percent of GDP. The national debt is the total amount of money the federal government owes. The national debt is owed to anyone who holds U.S. Savings Bonds or Treasury bills, bonds, or notes.

28 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu The National Debt The Difference Between Deficit and Debt The deficit is amount the government owes for one fiscal year. The national debt is the total amount that the government owes. Measuring the National Debt In dollar terms, the debt is extremely large: $5 trillion at the end of the twentieth century. Economists often measure the debt as a percent of GDP. The national debt is the total amount of money the federal government owes. The national debt is owed to anyone who holds U.S. Savings Bonds or Treasury bills, bonds, or notes.

29 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Is the Debt a Problem? Problems of a National Debt To cover deficit spending the government sells bonds. Every dollar spent on a government bond is one fewer dollar that is available for businesses to borrow and invest. This encroachment on investment in the private sector is known as the crowding-out effect. The larger the national debt, the more interest the government owes to bondholders. Dollars spent paying interest on the debt cannot be spent on anything else, such as defense, education, or health care. Other Views of a National Debt Keynesian economists argue that if government borrowing and spending help the economy achieve its full productive capacity, then the national debt outweighs the costs.

30 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu The Current National Debt Current Debt Held by the Public: 11,421,836,402, Intergovernmental Holdings: 4,823,482,417, As of 11/13/12, 1134 hr $16,256,230,608,112.96

31 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu The Current National Debt The estimated population of the United States is 312,620,551 so each citizen's share of this debt is $51,646. The National Debt has continued to increase an average of $4.00 billion per day since September 28, 2007! as of 4/20/2012 ($141,429 per tax payer) $16,256,230,608,112.96

32 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Deficit and Debt Reduction Legislative Solutions In reaction to large budget deficits during the 1980s, Congress passed the Gramm- Rudman laws which would have automatically cut spending across-the-board if spending increased too much. The Gramm-Rudman laws were declared unconstitutional in the early 1990s. Constitutional Solutions In 1995 Congress came close to passing a Constitutional amendment requiring balanced budgets. Proponents of such a measure argue that a balanced budget is necessary to make the government more disciplined about spending. Opponents of the measure argue that it is not flexible enough to deal with rapid changes in the economy.

33 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Want to connect to the PHSchool.com link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! Section 3 Assessment 1. A balanced budget is (a) a budget in which expenditures equal revenues. (b) a budget in which expenditures do not equal revenues. (c) a budget in which the government spends money. (d) a budget in which revenues equal taxes. 2. Which of the following are problems associated with a national debt? (a) increased spending on defense and education (b) the crowding-out effect and interest payments on the debt (c) interest payments on the debt and too much individual investment (d) increased individual investment and decreased government spending

34 Chapter 15SectionMain Menu Want to connect to the PHSchool.com link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! Section 3 Assessment 1. A balanced budget is (a) a budget in which expenditures equal revenues. (b) a budget in which expenditures do not equal revenues. (c) a budget in which the government spends money. (d) a budget in which revenues equal taxes. 2. Which of the following are problems associated with a national debt? (a) increased spending on defense and education (b) the crowding-out effect and interest payments on the debt (c) interest payments on the debt and too much individual investment (d) increased individual investment and decreased government spending


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