Presentation on theme: "Fiscal Policy. Section 1 Fiscal Policy is the federal government’s use of taxing and spending to keep the economy stable -Government spending has a."— Presentation transcript:
Fiscal Policy is the federal government’s use of taxing and spending to keep the economy stable -Government spending has a large impact on the economy
Fiscal policy decisions, such as how much to spend and how much to tax, are among the most important decisions the federal government makes.
A federal budget states how much money the government expects to get in that particular year and how much money the government can spend
The federal governments prepares a new budget each fiscal year (12 month period)
Federal agencies send request for money to the Office of Management and Budget Office of Management work with President to create a budget. President then sends it to Congress Congress makes changes to the budget, sends it back to the President President vetoes bill, Congress must override with 2/3 majority. If no majority, there must be compromise President signs budget into law
Government spending can help increase or decrease the output of the economy Expansionary policies-increase output Contractionary policies-decrease output
If the federal government buys more goods and services, it raises output and creates jobs When the government cuts taxes, consumers and businesses spend more/invest. This increases demand and output
If the federal government buys less goods and services, it leads to slower GDP growth When the government raises taxes, consumers and businesses don’t spend as much or save. This also slows GDP growth
Difficulty changing spending levels -Significant changes in government spending must come from discretionary spending Predicting the future -Economists often disagree as to what’s best for the economy as well as predicting its current state
Delayed Results -Change takes time Political Pressures -Voters can effect fiscal policy, such as decisions involving tax cuts and/or hikes
For fiscal policies to work, the judicial, executive and legislative branch must all work together Need to look at state/regional economic differences Fiscal policy must coordinate with monetary policies of the Federal Reserve
Classical economics is the idea that markets regulate themselves (i.e. Adam Smith) The Great Depression challenged the ideas of classical economics
Keynesian economics is the idea that the economy is composed of 3 sectors: individuals, businesses and government. Government actions can make up for changes in the other two
Also argue that fiscal policy can fight recessions and depressions Government could increase spending during a recession to make up for the decrease in consumer spending
The multiplier effect in fiscal policy means that every dollar in fiscal policy creates a greater than one dollar change in economic activity
Example: The government buys 10 billion dollars worth of guns from Company A. Not only did GDP increase because the government spent 10 billion, but now Company A has 10 billion dollars, some of that money which they will spend.
A stable economy is one where there are no rapid changes in economic factors. An automatic stabilizer is a government tax or spending category that changes in response to changes in GDP or income
Supply Side Economics believe that taxes have a negative influence on output The Laffer curve show how both high and low tax revenues can produce the same tax revenues.
The Great Depression-Increased government spending World War II- Increased government spending The 1960s- Proposed cuts to personal and business income taxes. Increased spending due to Vietnam War. Supply side economics in the 1980s- Passed a bill to reduce taxes by 25% over 3 years
A balanced budget is a budget in which revenues are equal to spending
A budget surplus occurs when revenues exceed spending A budget deficit occurs when spending exceeds revenues
Creating money- The government can pay for deficits by creating money, however, this can lead to inflation Borrowing money- The government can also pay for deficits by borrowing money (ex. Bonds)
The national debt is the total amount of money the federal government owes. This money is owed to anyone who holds bonds.
The deficit is the money the government owes for one fiscal year. The national debt is the total amount the government owes. In dollar terms, the debt is extremely large nearly
When money is spent on bonds, that money cannot be used for business investment. This is called the crowding-out effect. The larger the national debt, the more money that is owed to bondholders and paying interest on the debt. That’s money that cannot be spend on other programs such as education
Keynesian economists argue that since government spending and borrowing help the economy, it outweighs the costs of having high debt
There have been attempts by Congress to control deficits/budgets, but they have failed