Presentation on theme: "PwC Introduction. 2 PwC Overview of session 1. The modernisation project 4. Some IPSAS key concepts 5. Questions 3. IPSAS and the E.C. accounting rules."— Presentation transcript:
2 PwC Overview of session 1. The modernisation project 4. Some IPSAS key concepts 5. Questions 3. IPSAS and the E.C. accounting rules 2. Accrual V. Cash accounting
PwC Introduction 1. The modernisation project
4 PwC Issues addressed Integration of financial and accounting IT platforms Enhancements to data security and consistency Accrual accounting in compliance with IPSAS Accounting User requirements IT platforms DecentralisedImplementation CentralisedInformation
5 PwC Phase 3 Integrate Change Phase 1 Feasibility Study Phase Project Set-Up 2.2 Component Evaluation & Issues Resolution 2.3 Initial Con- version Converting to IPSAS - The big picture 1/1/2005 Phase 4 Publication of annual accounts Stabilization
PwC Introduction 2. Accrual V. Cash accounting
7 PwC Cash-basis V. Accrual-basis A basis of accounting that recognises transactions and other events when cash is received or paid. Measures financial results for a period as the difference between cash received and cash paid. A basis of accounting under which transactions and other events are recognized when they occur (and not only when cash or its equivalent is received or paid). Therefore, the transactions and events are recorded in the accounting records and recognised in the financial statements of the periods to which they relate. The elements recognised under accrual accounting are assets, liabilities, net assets, revenue and expenses. Cash-basisAccrual-basis
9 PwC The benefits of cash accounting Simple / Easy to understand by non-accountants Is less subject to estimates Cash accounting is adapted to the principle of annual parliamentary authority - Useful for assessing compliance with cash budgets / Easy follow up of budget implementation Useful for monitoring and estimating a government’s cahs resources Information on cash raised and spent remains the best indicator of the impact of the public sector on the economy
10 PwC Why adopt accrual accounting in addition? Both cash and accrual accounting address the question of the « affordability » of a public entity’s programmes and operations: –Budgets and cash accounting-based financial statements lay out a public entity’s spending and how it is financed –Accrual accounting-based financial statements provide additional information in describing a public entity’s financial position and actual results Accrual accounting distinguishes expenditure which provides economic benefits in the short-term (i.e. for current consumption) from that which will benefit the E.C. (and the E.C. citizens) well into the future (i.e. capital expenditure).
11 PwC Why adopt accrual accounting in addition? Enhanced information to the “external world” Enhanced management information ParliamentGeneral public Increased transparency Increased accountability
12 PwC New « Public Management Approaches » European impetus towards reforming governmental accounting and budgeting: -Democratic pressure for increased transparency and accountability in government -Consumer pressure for improved delivery of public services -Cost pressure to provide more and better infrastructure and services, more efficiently
13 PwC More complete information Presentation of a proper combined picture of financial position and performance: Assets Net assets Liabilities Complete information on the utilisation of resources (assets) Complete information on total borrowing and indebtedness Revenues Net surplus/ (deficit) Information about the total cost of policies and activities Comparison of revenue from « tax- payers » and the cost of policies and activities
14 PwC Worked example: Australia What does this tell? Australia: Budget at a glance Underlying Budget cash surplus of $2.1 billion, or 0.3 per cent of GDP. Using accrual accounting concepts, however, the fiscal balance is forecast to be $0.2 billion.
15 PwC Worked example: Australia (cont’d) Revenue Assets Liabilities By reporting the full picture, accrual accounting shows that tax to be levied in 2002/03 is enough to finance the current policies and activities – but that in addition the Australian government is either disinvesting in assets or increasing liabilities – future taxation or other revenues are already committed to paying off debt or maintaining assets
16 PwC Worked example: Belgium A l’occasion de cette rentrée parlementaire, le Gouvernement fédéral fait plus fort encore, avec l’opération Belgacom. En reprenant ses obligations en matière de pension, à concurrence de € 5 milliards […], et en faisant passer cela comme une recette, […] il oublie […] de dire qu’à cet actif correspond une dette transférée de Belgacom à l’Etat et contractée à l’égard de chaque pensionné de l’entreprise; tôt ou tard, l’Etat devra honorer cet engagement. Dès lors, […] en dérogation de toutes règles de comptabilité, il enregistre également cette recette comme un produit qui flatte ses comptes de résultat des années 2003 et 2004 (de respectivement € 3,6 et 1,4 milliards), […]. Sans cette opération effrontée, le budget de Verhofstadt II serait en déficit de 0,9 % du PIB en 2003 et de 0,4 % en Quant au surplus primaire hors Belgacom, il s’effrite jusqu’à 4,4 % cette année et 4,9 % en 2004, selon nos estimations. […] Et en 2005 ? […] Il n’y aura plus de nouvelle opération Belgacom. Par contre, l’Etat fédéral assumera déjà la charge des pensions de l’entreprise publique […]
17 PwC Worked example: Belgium (cont’d) Accrual accounting would have provided information on the Belgian State’s overall financial position and current stock of liabilities. Future revenues or additional borrowing will be needed in the longer term to satisfy the non-recognised liability. Generally said, under cash-based accounting, spending controls can be circumvented by deferring payments or hiding liabilities.
18 PwC The benefits to the E.C. of the modernisation project Enhanced management information New information Enhanced consistency (ABAC for budgetary accounting, general accounting and management information)
19 PwC Enhanced management information New management functionalities - examples: Master file of all new contractors and contracts per legal entity Follow-up of clearing of pre-financings through intermediary/final payments Inventory of guarantees received Immediate, straight-forward assessment of the exposure or liability to any third party (commitments, payments, collections, …) Inventory of assets
20 PwC Enhanced management information: Asset and liability management Examples: Accrual accounting focuses decisions-makers on: –The broad range of options available in managing assets: under a cash-based system, there is a tendency to focus on whether or not to spend on new assets – while under an accrual-based system, the focus also extends to whether to retain or upgrade existing assets –Financial assets and ensuring that they are measured realiably (the E.C. cannot make appropriate financing decisions without objectively assessing the recoverability of assets)
21 PwC Enhanced management information: Expenses Accrual accounting will provide the E.C. with information on the full costs of their activities so that they can: –consider the cost consequences of particular policy objectives and the cost of alternative mechanisms for meeting these objectives; –better allocate responsibility for managing particular costs; and –develop performance indicators.
22 PwC Enhanced management information – Example: Loans Unlike commercial loans, some E.C. loans may provide the borrower for concessions – e.g. below-market interest rates If the E.C. lend from borrowed funds at rates lower than it pays to borrow money, they do so at a cost If accounted for on a cash basis, there is little impact in the year the loan is made But over time, the costs accumulate Future revenues are in fact being committed to meet the growing difference between the interest rate the E.C. pay for money and the rate they earn on funds they have lent
23 PwC Enhanced management information – Example: Loans (cont’d) Currently: –In budgetary accounting, the loan is not even recorded as an asset –In the 2002 financial report, all loans are reported at face value – i.e. no information is given on the future cost of the concession granted to the borrower Under the new accrual-based E.C. rules: –Interest-free loans or loans at a rate below market rates for similar products to similar debtors will be recorded at an amount equal to the present value of all future cash receipts discounted using the prevailing market rates –any additional amount lent = the cost of the concession to the borrower = a reduction of income or an expense The same will apply to interest-free pre-financings: this will measure the cost of pre-financing contractors / beneficiaries
PwC Introduction 3. IPSAS and the E.C. accounting rules
25 PwC Why IPSAS? 1.World-wide impetus to enhance corporate financial reporting and its comparability – not only in the public sector: –In the EU, listed companies are required to publish their consolidated financial statements under IAS/IFRS for each financial year starting on or after 1 January 2005 (IAS/IFRS regulation of 7 June 2002). This applies to c. 7,000 listed companies
26 PwC Why IPSAS? 2.The only international comprehensive set of accounting standards for the public sector 1 : Elaborated from International Accounting Standards Easier understanding -Easier future convergence of national standards of Member States Adopted by the OECD; being adopted by the NATO 1 Public sector refers to: international organisations; national governments; regional governments (state, provincial, territorial); local governments (city, town); and related governmental entities (agencies, boards, commissions and enterprises)
27 PwC The E.C. accounting rules Basis of preparationFinancial statements Net surplus or deficit for the period, fundamental errors and changes in accounting policies Property, plant and equipment Group accounting Intangible assets Leases Foreign currency transactions Inventories Pre-financing Revenues and receivables Payables and expenses Provisions, Contingent Assets and Contingent Liabilities Related parties and Key management disclosures Cash and cash equivalents Financial assets and financial liabilities
28 PwC Tools and resources Accounting Standards Accounting Manual Consoli- dation Manual Procedural guidelines by operation
29 PwC Overview of training Module 1 Introduction Financial statements Revenues and receivables Expenses and payables Pre-financing Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets Module 2 Property, Plant and Equipment Intangible Assets Leases Inventories
PwC Introduction 4. Some IPSAS key concepts
31 PwC Substance over form Accounting policies should reflect the economic substance of events and transactions and not merely their legal form – the definition of accounting policies requires the exercise of judgment Examples: –From a risk and rewards perspective leasing an asset may in substance be equivalent to owning it –Control (and the obligation of consolidating another entity) refers to an entity’s power to govern the financial and operating policies of another entity and does not necessarily require an entity to hold a majority shareholding or other equity interest in the other entity
32 PwC Carrying value Carrying value = the amount for which an asset or a liability are recognised in the financial statements Implies an initial measurement (e.g. the cost of acquisition of an asset) then subsequent measurements (e.g. the recognition of the value consumption of an asset through depreciation)
33 PwC Depreciation Depreciation = the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life –Depreciable amount = The cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost in the financial statements (e.g. fair value), less its residual value –Useful life = Either: (a) the period of time over which an asset is expected to be used by the entity; or (b) the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by the entity.
34 PwC Fair value Fair value = the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction –Several standards require that assets or liabilities be measured at their fair value (rather than at historical cost or cost of acquisition): e.g. items of property, plant and equipment gifted; financial assets held for trading; …