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1 Jan-Erik Petersen, EEA Bioenergy-related analysis: Focus on land use aspects.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Jan-Erik Petersen, EEA Bioenergy-related analysis: Focus on land use aspects."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Jan-Erik Petersen, EEA Bioenergy-related analysis: Focus on land use aspects

2 2 Context for links between bioenergy + environmental resources Renewables only 6% of EU-25 energy mix in 2003 Need to reduce CO2 emissions from energy use Bioenergy is very important renewable energy source Agriculture has strongest growth potential of the 3 main biomass sources (next to forestry + waste) Agricultural land use has a strong impact on water quality and quantity, soils, biodiversity, landscape  How do we combine bioenergy production and the protection of natural resources on farmland?

3 3 Relevant EU policy targets for 2010/20 12 % renewable energy (20% by 2020) 21 % renewables electricity 5.75 % biofuels (10% by 2020)  Double/ >triple bioenergy use Source: Eurostat for past data: EEA for projections Please note: 2010 are modelled data, not policy targets! ? 2020

4 4 Environmental issues of energy cropping Bioenergy & Water Pathways & Energy Cropping Approaches Impacts of Cropping practices Land use change & availability Impacts of Conversion processes

5 5 EEA project: How much biomass can Europe produce without harming the environment? Objective: determine the bioenergy potential from agriculture, forestry, waste in 2010, 2020, 2030, which -exerts no additional pressure on farmland and forest biodiversity or soil and water resources -respects other environmental objectives

6 6 Model assumptions for calculating the agricultural bioenergy potential Basic assumption: no competition between bioenergy and production of food for domestic use (maintain food self sufficiency) Liberalisation of agricultural markets due to CAP reform Significant yield increases for energy crops Grow mainly specialised bioenergy crops beyond 2010 (when shift from first to second generation biofuels is assumed), e.g. perennial grasses / SRC Policy framework supports environmental orientation of food and energy crop production

7 7 The environmentally compatible bioenergy potential, EU-25

8 8 Environmentally-compatible bioenergy potential from agriculture, EU-25

9 Main messages from technical report on agricultural bioenergy potential Agricultural bioenergy production is increasing strongly + will rise further Environmental risks of bioenergy production are becoming apparent from national evidence Conditions for keeping biomass production environmentally-compatible explained Underlying modeling described in detail Discussion of policy options to steer biomass production in environmental direction Limited review of policy integration + global issues

10 Bioenergy work at EEA in 2007 Technical report on estimating the environmental bioenergy potential from agriculture Background paper on biomass production and water protection for WFD conference Joint EEA/JRC expert consultation on short rotation coppice + energy grasses (see JRC site: Developing the most greenhouse gas and energy-efficient bio-energy pathways Exploration of links with OECD, IEA + others

11 11 Bioenergy Environ- mental resources Costs & Employment Greenhouse gas reduction Supply security How best to use the potential? Replace as much imported fuel as possible t CO 2 avoided per hectare? t CO 2 avoided per Dollar? synergies with nature protection crop mix respects soil, water land use change

12 12 Maximising the potential for CO 2 savings

13 Effects on water quantity Climate and soil conditions need to influence crop choice Need to consider what agriculture systems are being replaced What cropping systems to chose: SRC and perennial grasses can impact on groundwater recharge Effects on water quality + ecosystems Impacts from land use change, e.g. maize replacing grassland.. How to utilise by-products / review total nutrient cycle Management at farm level: crop choices + rotation, fertilisation, planting and harvesting practices Impacts of conversion processes (water use, emissions) 20-21/09/2007 Paris, France CAP&WFD Conference organised by Potential risks from bioenergy cropping – conclusions from WFD conference, Paris 09/07

14 14 Bio-energy cropping – potential synergies with water protection Replace annual crops with perennial energy crops (energy grasses, willow coppice etc) Widen crop rotations to benefit soil + nutrient management (e.g. biomass crop mixes, alfalfa) Establish buffer strips with energy crops Create flood retention zones by using perennial energy crops Combine waste water treatment and biomass harvesting

15 Further Issues in Policy and Research Development and implementation of sustainability standards Energy policy needs to develop framework conditions for environmentally friendly bioenergy systems Need for raising environmental awareness and training of all actors involved Climate change complicates the picture - affects ability to make assumptions about the future Scale of production with a smaller scale it is easier to come up with solutions tailored to local agri-environmental conditions Crop rotation and diversification are important factors Need more research to enable Life Cycle Assessments of bioenergy crops + bioenergy pathways

16 Planned EEA activities on bioenergy in 2008 and beyond Present work on optimising bioenergy pathways + agricultural potential, establish web (sub)page Contribute to OECD/IEA report on biofuels Analyse approaches to sustainability impact assessment of biofuels with JRC Further develop GHG life cycle balances with IEA, JRC and other global players Explore ways of linking agro-econ. + environment models on GHG balance of indirect land use change Develop an approach to assessing biofuel production in context of ecosystem services project

17 17 Thank you for your attention! Jan-Erik Petersen European Environment Agency Telephone : +45 3336 7133 http://reports.eea.europa. eu/eea_report_2006_7/en

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