Presentation on theme: "Bioenergy-related analysis: Focus on land use aspects"— Presentation transcript:
1Bioenergy-related analysis: Focus on land use aspects Jan-Erik Petersen, EEA
2Context for links between bioenergy + environmental resources Renewables only 6% of EU-25 energy mix in 2003Need to reduce CO2 emissions from energy useBioenergy is very important renewable energy sourceAgriculture has strongest growth potential of the 3 main biomass sources (next to forestry + waste)Agricultural land use has a strong impact on water quality and quantity, soils, biodiversity, landscapeHow do we combine bioenergy production and the protection of natural resources on farmland?
3Relevant EU policy targets for 2010/20 ?Relevant EU policy targets for 2010/2012 % renewable energy (20% by 2020)21 % renewables electricity5.75 % biofuels (10% by 2020)Double/ >triple bioenergy use2020Source: Eurostat for past data: EEA for projectionsPlease note: 2010 are modelled data, not policy targets!
4Environmental issues of energy cropping Land usechange &availabilityPathways& EnergyCroppingApproachesBioenergy&WaterImpacts ofCroppingpracticesImpacts ofConversionprocesses
5EEA project: How much biomass can Europe produce without harming the environment? Objective: determine the bioenergy potential from agriculture, forestry, waste in 2010, 2020, 2030, whichexerts no additional pressure on farmland and forest biodiversity orsoil and water resourcesrespects other environmental objectives5
6Model assumptions for calculating the agricultural bioenergy potential Basic assumption: no competition between bioenergy and production of food for domestic use (maintain food self sufficiency)Liberalisation of agricultural markets due to CAP reformSignificant yield increases for energy cropsGrow mainly specialised bioenergy crops beyond 2010 (when shift from first to second generation biofuels is assumed), e.g. perennial grasses / SRCPolicy framework supports environmental orientation of food and energy crop production6
8Environmentally-compatible bioenergy potential from agriculture, EU-25
9Main messages from technical report on agricultural bioenergy potential Agricultural bioenergy production is increasing strongly + will rise furtherEnvironmental risks of bioenergy production are becoming apparent from national evidenceConditions for keeping biomass production environmentally-compatible explainedUnderlying modeling described in detailDiscussion of policy options to steer biomass production in environmental directionLimited review of policy integration + global issues
10Bioenergy work at EEA in 2007 Technical report on estimating the environmental bioenergy potential from agricultureBackground paper on biomass production and water protection for WFD conferenceJoint EEA/JRC expert consultation on short rotation coppice + energy grasses (see JRC site:Developing the most greenhouse gas and energy-efficient bio-energy pathwaysExploration of links with OECD, IEA + others
11How best to use the potential? t CO2avoidedperhectare?Replaceas muchimportedfuel aspossibleGreenhousegasreductionSupplysecurityBioenergyt CO2avoidedper Dollar?Environ-mentalresourcesCosts &Employmentcrop mixrespectssoil, watersynergieswith natureprotectionland use change
1320-21/09/2007 Paris, France CAP&WFD Conference organised by Potential risks from bioenergy cropping – conclusions from WFD conference, Paris 09/07Effects on water quantityClimate and soil conditions need to influence crop choiceNeed to consider what agriculture systems are being replacedWhat cropping systems to chose: SRC and perennial grasses can impact on groundwater rechargeEffects on water quality + ecosystemsImpacts from land use change, e.g. maize replacing grassland..How to utilise by-products / review total nutrient cycleManagement at farm level: crop choices + rotation, fertilisation, planting and harvesting practicesImpacts of conversion processes (water use, emissions)20-21/09/2007 Paris, France CAP&WFD Conference organised by
14Bio-energy cropping – potential synergies with water protection Replace annual crops with perennial energy crops (energy grasses, willow coppice etc)Widen crop rotations to benefit soil + nutrient management (e.g. biomass crop mixes, alfalfa)Establish buffer strips with energy cropsCreate flood retention zones by using perennial energy cropsCombine waste water treatment and biomass harvesting
15Further Issues in Policy and Research Development and implementation of sustainability standardsEnergy policy needs to develop framework conditions for environmentally friendly bioenergy systemsNeed for raising environmental awareness and training of all actors involvedClimate change complicates the picture - affects ability to make assumptions about the futureScale of productionwith a smaller scale it is easier to come up with solutions tailored to local agri-environmental conditionsCrop rotation and diversification are important factorsNeed more research to enable Life Cycle Assessments of bioenergy crops + bioenergy pathways
16Planned EEA activities on bioenergy in 2008 and beyond Present work on optimising bioenergy pathways + agricultural potential, establish web (sub)pageContribute to OECD/IEA report on biofuelsAnalyse approaches to sustainability impact assessment of biofuels with JRCFurther develop GHG life cycle balances with IEA, JRC and other global playersExplore ways of linking agro-econ. + environment models on GHG balance of indirect land use changeDevelop an approach to assessing biofuel production in context of ecosystem services project
17Thank you for your attention! Jan-Erik PetersenEuropean Environment AgencyTelephone :