Aerobic respiration: Glucose + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water + energy Exercise creates an oxygen debt Anaerobic respiration: Glucose Lactic acid + energy Much less energy released than aerobic respiration You breathe heavily to replace oxygen Heart beats faster so blood carries lactic acid away to liver to be broken down BP: measured in mmHg Systolic pressure: maximum pressure the heart produces Diastolic pressure: blood pressure between heart beats Measuring fitness: Strength, flexibility, stamina, agility, speed BMI= mass (Kg) height (m) 2 RDA: Recommended daily allowance RDA(g) = 0.75X body mass (Kg) Types of cancer: Benign tumours are slow to divide, harmless and do not spread Malignant tumours are cancerous, divide out of control and spread throughout the body Carbohydrase (produced in the mouth, pancreas and small intestine) breaks _______ (a carbohydrate) down into glucose: Protease (produced in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine) breaks _______ down into amino acids: Lipase (produced in the pancreas and small intestine) breaks fats (_____) down into fatty acids and glycerol: Words – blood, lipids, proteins, digestion, starch, smaller Inheritance- Parents who are both carriers of the Cystic fibrosis allele (c). ParentsCc x Cc GametesC or c x C or c (egg/sperm) C c Possible Outcomes C 75% Normal c 25% sufferers CCCc cc Protein deficiency - Kwashiorkor R.Narasimhan
Cystic Fibrosis Caused by recessive allele (so two copies of allele are needed). A thick sticky mucus is produced affecting air passages and digestive systems Controlling Blood Sugar Controlled by the pancreas, diabetics do not produce enough insulin Treatments Injections or monitoring diet Normal blood glucose level Normal blood glucose level. Insulin produced by the pancreas causes glucose to change to glycogen Glucagon released and glycogen converted back to glucose Glucose rises (eat food) Glucose falls (exercise) Step 1: The lymphocyte “sees” the pathogen (microbe ) Step 2: The cell produces antibodies to “fit” the pathogen Producing antibodies Step 3: The antibodies fit onto the pathogens and cause them to “clump” Step 4: The pathogens are “eaten” by the white blood cells Reflex action: Stimulus receptor sensory neurone relay neuron in spinal cord motor neurone response Concave lens and convex lens corrects refraction of light rays so the image lands on the retina Temperature Monitored by thermoregulatory centre in brain and receptors in skin. Too Hot -hair lies flat -blood vessels dilate so heat lost through skin -sweat produced Too Cold -goosebumps & hairs trap air -blood vessels constrict -no sweat -shiver, respiration releases heat
Class AClass BClass C ExampleEcstasy, LSD, heroin, cocaine, crack, magic mushrooms, amphetamines (if prepared for injection). Amphetamines, Cannabis, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Pholcodine. Tranquilisers, some painkillers, Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Ketamine. PossessionUp to seven years in prison or an unlimited fine or both. Up to five years in prison or an unlimited fine or both. Up to two years in prison or an unlimited fine or both. DealingUp to life in prison or an unlimited fine or both. Up to 14 years in prison or an unlimited fine or both. Damaged cilia in a smoker’s air way Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation Hormones of the menstrual cycle DNA with bases Human male chromosomes Lobed ears are dominant over ears with no lobes
NATURAL SELECTION D______ proposed the theory of e______ to explain how species change over time. There is v_______ between individuals, those that are better a_______ are more likely to s________ and r________, passing on favorable characteristics. HUMAN EVOLUTION How are human beings different from apes? bigger b_____ w_____ upright EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION What evidence is there that evolution is happening? CHARLES DARWIN: Developed theory of natural selection based on survival of fittest Genes pass on the successful characteristics to the next generation COMPETITION What resources are plants and animals in competition for? Space Food Mate Fossil record is incomplete because: Some body part decay quickly Fossilisation is rare There may still be fossils we have not found EXTINCTION Causes of extinction: increased c_______ New p________ e_________ change new d_________ LAMARCK Believed that acquired characteristics can be inherited LINCOLN INDEX: Population = Number of animals number of animals Caught 1 st time X caught 2 nd time number of marked animals caught second time NATURAL ECOSYSTEM Ocean, dessert, grass land, rain forest ARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEM Farm land, Aquarium, green house Vertebrate groupDescription FishHas scales and gills AmphibianHas moist permeable skin ReptileHas dry scaly skin BirdHas feathers and a beak MammalsHas fur and feeds young on milk InvertebrateVertebrate No back bone Example: Worms, insects Back bone present Example: Humans, fishes PHOTOSYNTHESIS : Carbon dioxide + water ------ glucose + oxygen MUTUALISM: When both Organisms benefit, example: Pea plant and nitrogen – fixing bacteria The presence or absence of an indicator species is used to estimate levels of pollution Example: Lichens Sustainable development is taking things from the environment but leaving enough behind to ensure a supply for the future and prevent damage Adaptation: features which help a plant or animal survive in an extreme environment,. Example: Polar bear, Camel and cactus The up and down pattern of predator and prey population is called cyclic fluctuations Photosynthesis happens only during day but respiration happens both during day and night
“Species” means “a group of similar organisms” which are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring, e.g. dogs Hybrids: Hybrids are the result of breeding two animals form different species, they cannot reproduce and are sterile. Example: Tiger +Lion = Tigon += LabradorPoodleLabradoodle Liger Geep Zebroid Mule Reproduction between species Organism PlantsAnimals VertebratesInvertebrates ReptilesFishBirdsMammalsAmphibians Have backbone No backbone Classifying organisms Photosynthesis glucose Oxygen Used to make plant proteins for plant growth Used as energy Used to make cellulose for plant cell walls Stored as starch Stored as fats and oils Used in respirationReleased into air Direct products of photosynthesis Ecological niche: The role of an organism in an ecosystem is called its ecological niche. Example: Native red and American grey squirrels. In Britain, there are 2 types of squirrels which occupy same ecological niche and there is a competition leading to decline in number of red squirrels.
Cytoplasm: chemical reactions take place Cell membrane: Controls movement into and out of the cell Nucleus: contains genetic information Mitochondria: Respiration takes place providing energy Nitrogen bases: Adenine pairs with Thymine Guanine pairs with cytosine DNA is a double helix Genetic instructions are in the form of a code made up of 4 bases Protein synthesis: Each gene codes for a particular protein B3 Living and growing
Haemoglobin + oxygen Oxyhaemoglobin Platelets: are tiny pieces of cell, which have no nucleus. Important for clotting Plasma: straw coloured liquid which transports carbon dioxide, glucose, waste products, hormones and antibodies White blood cells: protect body against disease Red blood cells: transport oxygen from lungs to the tissues, disc shaped and no nucleus Heart pumps blood around the body Arteries transport blood away from the heart Veins transport blood into the heart Capillaries exchange materials with tissues Mitosis-used for normal cell growth 1) Parent cell 2) Chromosomes make identical copies of themselves 3)They line up along the centre 4) They move apart 5)Two daughter cells form each with 46 identical chromosomes to the parent cell Meiosis –used to make the sex cells (gametes) -the chromosomes are copied -cell divides twice to give four cells Enzymes and digestion Large molecules are broken down so they can be absorbed. -Amylase breaks down starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine. -Proteases breakdown proteins into amino acids in the stomach and small intestine. -Lipases breakdown fats into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine. 1)2)3) Enzymes –biological catalysts that speed up reactions e.g. respiration in the mitochondria 1) Enzyme and substrate 2)Substrate binds to active site 3) Substrate is broken down Enzymes have an optimum temperature and pH. Changes in pH/temp can denature the enzyme so its shape changes and the substrate can’t bind to the active site Uses of Enzymes -Biological washing powders -In baby foods -In slimming foods- fructose is made using isomerases. Fructose is sweeter than glucose so less is needed.
Used in lungs O 2 diffuses into the blood and CO 2 diffuses into lungs Cell Wall Cell Membrane Nucleus Vacuole Chloroplast Cytoplasm Photosynthesis Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen Light and chlorophyll are also needed 3 Limiting factors -light -temperature -CO 2 At first as CO 2 increases so does photosynthesis but only up to a certain point Here light or temperature is the limiting factor. Cell division Cell expansion Cell differentiation Cell growth