2Words – blood, lipids, proteins, digestion, starch, smaller R.NarasimhanBP: measured in mmHgSystolic pressure: maximum pressure the heart producesDiastolic pressure: blood pressure between heart beatsAerobic respiration:Glucose + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water + energyExercise creates an oxygen debtMeasuring fitness:Strength, flexibility, stamina, agility, speedAnaerobic respiration:Glucose Lactic acid + energyMuch less energy released than aerobic respirationYou breathe heavily to replace oxygenHeart beats faster so blood carries lactic acid away to liver to be broken downBMI= mass (Kg)height (m)2RDA: Recommended daily allowanceB1 UnderstandingourselvesTypes of cancer:Benign tumours are slow to divide, harmless and do not spreadMalignant tumours are cancerous, divide out of control and spread throughout the bodyRDA(g) = 0.75X body mass (Kg)Protein deficiency - KwashiorkorInheritance- Parents who are both carriers of the Cystic fibrosis allele (c).Parents Cc x CcGametes C or c x C or c(egg/sperm) C cPossible Outcomes C75% Normal c25% sufferersCarbohydrase (produced in the mouth, pancreas and small intestine) breaks _______ (a carbohydrate) down intoglucose:Protease (produced in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine) breaks _______ down into amino acids:CCCcccLipase (produced in the pancreas and small intestine) breaks fats (_____) down into fatty acids and glycerol:Words – blood, lipids, proteins, digestion, starch, smaller
3Normal blood glucose level Insulin produced by the pancreas causes glucose to change to glycogenGlucagon released and glycogen converted back to glucoseGlucose rises (eat food)Glucose falls (exercise)Cystic FibrosisCaused by recessive allele (so two copies of allele are needed).A thick sticky mucus is produced affecting air passages and digestive systemsControlling Blood SugarControlled by the pancreas, diabetics do not produce enough insulinTreatmentsInjections or monitoring dietProducing antibodiesStep 1: The lymphocyte “sees” the pathogen (microbe)Step 2: The cell produces antibodiesto “fit” the pathogenTemperatureMonitored by thermoregulatory centre in brain and receptors in skin.Too Hot-hair lies flat-blood vessels dilate so heat lost through skin-sweat producedToo Cold-goosebumps & hairs trap air-blood vessels constrict-no sweat-shiver, respiration releases heatStep 3: The antibodies fit onto the pathogens and cause them to “clump”Step 4: The pathogens are “eaten” by the white blood cellsReflex action: Stimulus receptor sensory neurone relay neuron in spinal cord motor neurone responseConcave lens and convex lens corrects refraction of light raysso the image lands on the retina
4Class AClass BClass CExampleEcstasy, LSD, heroin, cocaine, crack, magic mushrooms, amphetamines (if prepared for injection).Amphetamines, Cannabis, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Pholcodine.Tranquilisers, some painkillers, Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Ketamine.PossessionUp to seven years in prison or an unlimited fine or both.Up to five years in prison or an unlimited fine or both.Up to two years in prison or an unlimited fine or both.DealingUp to life in prison or an unlimited fine or both.Up to 14 years in prison or an unlimited fine or both.DNA with basesDamaged cilia in a smoker’s air wayHormones of the menstrual cycleLobed ears are dominant over ears with no lobesVasoconstriction and VasodilationHuman male chromosomes
5B2 Understanding the environment EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTIONWhat evidence is there that evolution is happening?HUMAN EVOLUTIONHow are human beings different from apes?bigger b_____w_____ uprightNATURAL SELECTIOND______ proposed the theory of e______ to explain how species change over time. There is v_______ between individuals, those that are better a_______ are more likely to s________ and r________, passing on favorable characteristics.Fossil record is incomplete because:Some body part decay quicklyFossilisation is rareThere may still be fossils we have not foundNATURAL ECOSYSTEMOcean, dessert, grass land,rain forestARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEMFarm land, Aquarium, green houseThe up and down pattern of predator and preypopulation is called cyclic fluctuationsLAMARCKBelieved that acquired characteristics can be inheritedPhotosynthesis happens only during day butrespiration happens both during day and nightB2 Understandingthe environmentThe presence or absence of an indicator species isused to estimate levels of pollution Example: LichensCHARLES DARWIN: Developed theory of natural selection based on survival of fittestGenes pass on the successful characteristics to the next generationInvertebrateVertebrateNo back boneExample: Worms, insectsBack bone presentExample: Humans, fishesCOMPETITIONWhat resources are plants and animals in competition for?SpaceFoodMateEXTINCTIONCauses of extinction:increased c_______New p________e_________ changenew d_________Adaptation: features which help a plantor animal survive in an extremeenvironment,. Example: Polar bear, Camel and cactusSustainable developmentis taking things from theenvironment but leavingenough behind toensure a supply forthe future andprevent damageVertebrate groupDescriptionFishHas scales and gillsAmphibianHas moist permeable skinReptileHas dry scaly skinBirdHas feathers and a beakMammalsHas fur and feeds young on milkPHOTOSYNTHESIS : Carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygenLINCOLN INDEX: Population =Number of animals number of animalsCaught 1st time X caught 2nd timenumber of marked animals caught second timeMUTUALISM: When bothOrganisms benefit, example:Pea plant andnitrogen – fixing bacteria
6“Species” means “a group of similar organisms” which are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring, e.g. dogsHybrids:Hybrids are the result of breeding twoanimals form different species, theycannot reproduce and are sterile.Example: Tiger +Lion = Tigon+=OrganismPlantsAnimalsVertebratesInvertebratesReptilesFishBirdsMammalsAmphibiansHave backboneNo backboneClassifying organismsReproduction between speciesLabradorPoodleLabradoodleLigerGeepZebroidMuleUsed to make cellulosefor plant cell wallsUsed as energyStored as starchUsed to make plant proteinsfor plant growthStored as fats and oilsglucosePhotosynthesisOxygenEcological niche: The role of an organism in an ecosystem is called its ecological niche.Example: Native red and American grey squirrels. In Britain, there are 2 types ofsquirrels which occupy same ecological niche and there is a competition leading todecline in number of red squirrels.Used in respirationReleased into airDirect products of photosynthesis
7B3 Living and growing Cytoplasm: chemical reactions take place Cell membrane: Controls movement into and out of the cellNucleus: contains genetic informationMitochondria: Respiration takes place providing energyNitrogen bases:Adenine pairs with ThymineGuanine pairs with cytosineDNA is a double helixGenetic instructions are in theform of a code made up of 4 basesProtein synthesis:Each gene codes fora particular proteinB3 Living and growing
8Haemoglobin + oxygen Oxyhaemoglobin Platelets: are tiny pieces of cell, which have no nucleus. Important for clottingPlasma: straw coloured liquid which transports carbon dioxide, glucose, waste products, hormones and antibodiesWhite blood cells: protect body against diseaseRed blood cells: transport oxygen from lungs to the tissues, disc shaped and no nucleusEnzymes have an optimum temperature and pH. Changes in pH/temp can denature the enzyme so its shape changes and the substrate can’t bind to the active siteUses of Enzymes-Biological washing powders-In baby foods-In slimming foods- fructose is made using isomerases. Fructose is sweeter than glucose so less is needed.1)2)3)Enzymes –biological catalysts that speed up reactions e.g. respiration in the mitochondria1) Enzyme and substrate2)Substrate binds to active site3) Substrate is broken downMitosis-used for normal cell growth1) Parent cell2) Chromosomes make identical copies of themselves3)They line up along the centre4) They move apart5)Two daughter cells form each with 46 identical chromosomes to the parent cellMeiosis –used to make the sex cells (gametes)-the chromosomes are copied-cell divides twice to give four cellsHeart pumps blood around the bodyArteries transport blood away from the heartVeins transport blood into the heartCapillaries exchange materials with tissuesEnzymes and digestionLarge molecules are broken down so theycan be absorbed.-Amylase breaks down starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine.-Proteases breakdown proteins into amino acids in the stomach and small intestine.-Lipases breakdown fats into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine.
9Used in lungs O2 diffuses into the blood and CO2 diffuses into lungs Cell WallCell MembraneNucleusVacuoleChloroplastCytoplasmPhotosynthesisCarbon dioxide + Water Glucose + OxygenCell growthLight and chlorophyll are also neededCell division3 Limiting factors -light-temperature-CO2At first as CO2increases so does photosynthesisbut only up to a certain pointHere light or temperature is the limiting factor.Cell expansionCell differentiation