B2 REVISION – CHAPTER 1 – CELLS, TISSUES & ORGANS KEY WORDS: Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell membrane Mitochondria Ribosome Chloroplast Vacuole Specialised Diffusion Concentration gradient Multicellular Tissue Organ Organ system ASSESSMENT: What do plant cells have that animal cells do not? What is the function of: Nucleus – Mitochondria Ribosomes Chloroplasts Cell Wall Sketch and label a plant and an animal cell; Draw and label 2 specialised cells. Explain their structure is adapted to suit their function Use pictures and words to describe the three ways substances can move in and out of cells Diffusion What is a tissue? What is an organ? What is an organ system?
B2 REVISION – CHAPTER 2 – ORGANISMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT KEY WORDS: Photosynthesis Glucose Limiting factors Quadrat Sample size Range Mean Median Mode Transect Reproducible Valid Variables ASSESSMENT: What is the equation for photosynthesis Where in the plant does it occur? How are leaves adapted to perform photosynthesis? Explain how light, CO 2 and temperature are limiting factors of photosynthesis Explain how plants use glucose for the following: Respiration Transport Storage How do we measure the distribution of organisms? How do we know this data is accurate? How doe the follow factors affect organisms in their environment? Temperature: Light: Water: CO 2 and O 2 :
B2 REVISION – CHAPTER 3 – ENZYMES KEY WORDS: Catalysts Enzyme Active site Denatured Digested Carbohydrase Amylase Protease Lipase Bile Emulsifiers Biological detergents ASSESSMENT: What are enzymes made from? What do enzymes do? How do they work? (explain & draw the lock & key mechanism What effect does temperature have on enzyme activity What effect does pH have on enzyme activity What are the 3 groups of enzymes in digestion? What is their substrate and what do they break them down into? 1) 2) 3) Why is the stomach acidic? What is bile, what does it do and how does it do it? Describe 3 industrial uses for enzymes How can we speed up digestion? Changing the pH: Altering the surface area:
B2 REVISION – CHAPTER 4 – ENERGY FROM RESPIRATION KEY WORDS: Aerobic respiration Mitochondria Glycogen Anaerobic respiration Oxygen debt ASSESSMENT: What is the formula for aerobic respiration? What is the role of mitochondria in respiration? Why do organisms respire? A student pedalled an exercise cycle at constant speed for 5 minutes. The student’s heart rate was recorded at one-minute intervals during the exercise and also during recovery. Describe the effect exercise has on the heart: A student‘s breathing was monitored before and after vigorous exercise. The student breathed in and out through a special apparatus. The graphs show the changes in the volume of air inside the apparatus. Each time the student breathed in, the line on the graph dropped. Each time the student breathed out, the line went up. Describe the effect of exercise has on breathing: What is anaerobic respiration? How does it cause muscle fatigue? What is oxygen debt?
B2 REVISION – CHAPTER 5 – SIMPLE INHERITANCE KEY WORDS: Alleles Mitosis Meiosis Stem cells Therapeutic cloning Mendel DNA finger printing Chromosomes Dominant Recessive Polydactyly Cystic fibrosis ASSESSMENT: What are stem cells? State 2 uses of stem cells: State 2 problems with stem cell research: Chromosomes are made of long strands of what? Small sections of this are called what? What do genes code for? What is DNA fingerprinting? What is mitosis and why is it needed? What is differentiation? How does it differ in plants and animals? What is meiosis? Why is it important? How does it help generate variation? How many chromosomes in a) gamete and b) somatic cell? What is an allele? What does a) dominant; and b) recessive mean? What is Cystic Fibrosis and what causes it? Draw the punnet's square for 2 CF carriers
How do these fossils support the theory of evolution B2 REVISION – CHAPTER 6 – OLD & NEW SPECIES KEY WORDS: Fossils Extinction Geographical isolation Endemic Speciation ASSESSMENT: What are fossils? How are they formed? What can we learn from fossils? Why do we describe fossil records as incomplete? What is extinction? Describe how… …environmental change leads to extinction …organisms can cause extinction Describe how new species can evolve through geographical isolation: Higher: include info on speciation What caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?