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Source: Research Design Explained 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley.

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Presentation on theme: "Source: Research Design Explained 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley."— Presentation transcript:

1 Source: Research Design Explained 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

2   Questions to ask before doing survey research  The advantages and disadvantages of different survey instruments  Planning your survey  Administering your survey  Analyzing your data Overview PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

3   Do you have a clear hypothesis?  Do your questions focus on that hypothesis?  Will participants answers provide accurate answers to your questions?  To whom will your results apply? PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley Questions to Ask Before Doing Survey Research

4   People don’t know the causes of their own behavior  People’s memories are inaccurate  People are not good at predicting their future behavior  People are not telling you what they know because of:  Social desirability bias  Demand characteristics  Response sets Answers May Be Inaccurate Because: PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

5   Do you know what your population is?  How can you get a representative sample of that population?  Will nonresponse bias prevent you from generalizing your results to that population? Generalizing Your Results PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

6   Easy way to get a lot of information  However, that information:  Will not have internal validity  May not have construct validity because of self-report problems  May not have external validity because of poor sampling or because of non-response bias  May not answer research question because survey questions weren’t focused on hypotheses Advantages & Disadvantages PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

7   Written Instruments  Interviews The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Survey Instruments PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

8   Self-administered questionnaires  Cheap, easy to distribute to large sample--but nonresponse bias is big problem  Anonymous which may promote honest responses  Investigator-administered questionnaires  Higher response rates  May hurt sense of anonymity and thus decrease honesty of responses Note: A highly refined version of the investigator-administered questionnaire is the psychological test Written Instruments PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

9   May be part or all of a questionnaire  Even if you don’t use questions from tests, you can try to use strategies that test-makers use Psychological tests PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

10   Pretest questions and measure  Standardize how measure is administered  Be objective  Be aware of response sets  Seek evidence for measure’s reliability and validity Things Questionnaire Writers Can Learn from Test Makers PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

11   May be worth added expense if  It increases response rate  Need ability to clarify questions, follow up on responses  May not be worth added expense if construct validity is harmed by  Interviewer bias  Participant trying to impress interviewer  Telephone interviews may be ideal solution Interviews PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

12   Cheaper than face-to-face interviews  Can have high relatively high response rate  Interviewer bias controlled by  Lack of body cues  Monitoring/taping interviewer’s calls Advantages of Telephone Interviews PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

13   Deciding on a research question  Choosing the format of your questions  Choosing the format of your interview--if you use an interview  Editing your questions  Sequencing your questions  Refining your survey instrument  Choosing a sampling strategy Planning a Survey PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

14   Fixed alternative  Yes/No  Reliable  Not powerful  Likert  Open-ended  May not be properly answered  May be difficult to score Choosing the Format of Your Questions PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

15   Unstructured  Interviewer bias is a serious problem  Data may not be hard to analyse  Semi-structured  Follow-up questions allowed  Probably best for pilot studies  Structured  Standardized, reducing interviewer bias Choosing the Format of Your Interview PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

16  Editing Questions: Nine Mistakes to Avoid 1. Avoid leading questions 2. Avoid questions that invite the social desirability bias 3. Avoid double-barreled questions 4. Avoid long questions 5. Avoid negations 6. Avoid irrelevant questions 7. Avoid poorly worded response options 8. Avoid big words 9. Avoid ambiguous words & phrases PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

17   To boost response rate, put innocuous questions first, personal questions last  To avoid wasting time, qualify early  To increase accuracy, keep similar questions together  To boost response rate, put demographic questions last Sequencing Questions PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

18   Professional appearance  Proof reading  Pilot testing  Practice coding responses--may lead to refining questionnaire so that it is easier to code responses Putting the Final Touches on Your Survey Instrument PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

19   Random sampling  Proportionate stratified random sampling  Convenience sampling  Quota sampling  Conclusions  Only random sampling will be representative  Nonresponse bias may ruin your sample Choosing a Sampling Strategy PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

20   Informed consent  Clear instructions  Debriefing  Confidentiality Administering the Survey PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

21   Summarizing data  Inferential statistics Analyzing Survey Data PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

22   Interval or ratio data  Mean  Correlation coefficients  Tables of means  Nominal data  Frequencies, percentages  Phi coefficient  Tables of frequencies Summarising Data PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

23   Interval or ratio data  Looking at relationships between pairs of variables  If have two groups, could use t-test between means  If not, should use test to see whether the correlation between two variables was significant  Be aware that if you do numerous statistical tests, you may be setting yourself up for a Type 1 error  To look at more than two variables at once, you can do  ANOVA  Multivariate analysis of variance, multiple regression, factor analysis, and other sophisticated tests Using Inferential Statistics PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

24   Nominal data  Chi-Square test  Be aware that if you do numerous statistical tests, you may be setting yourself up for Type 1 errors Using Inferential Statistics PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

25   Survey research is the most used research method  Survey research is the most misused research method  You know how to use rather than abuse survey research Concluding Remarks PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley

26  Any Questions? PowerPoint presentation to accompany Research Design Explained, 6th edition ; ©2007 Mark Mitchell & Janina Jolley


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