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Chapter 13 Survey Designs

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Survey Designs"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Survey Designs
Power Point Slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell

2 Educational Research 2e: Creswell
Key Ideas Intent and use of survey research Types of survey designs Key characteristics of a survey Constructing survey questionnaires Designing and conducting survey interviews What are the steps in the process of conducting survey research? How do you evaluate survey research? Educational Research 2e: Creswell

3 What is survey research?
Survey research designs are procedures in quantitative research in which investigators administer a survey to a sample or to the entire population of people in order to describe the attitudes, opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of the population. Educational Research 2e: Creswell

4 Educational Research 2e: Creswell
When do you use a survey? Assess trends Opinions, beliefs, and attitudes Follow-up analyses Evaluations Educational Research 2e: Creswell

5 How did survey research develop?
1817 International Survey of Education Systems 1890 Stanley Hall survey of children 1907 the Pittsburgh Survey examined social problems WWI and WWII sampling techniques improved Applications began to vary from social science to media Universities established social science research centers Private organizations such as Gallup, Rand Corporation, and Roper formed Educational Research 2e: Creswell

6 What are the types of survey designs?
Changes in a sub-population group identified by a common characteristic over time Time of Data Collection Study Over Time Study at One Point in Time Longitudinal Cross-sectional in the same people Trends in the same population Attitudes and Practices Community Needs Program Evaluation Trend Cohort Panel Group Comparisons National Assessment Educational Research 2e: Creswell

7 What are key characteristics of survey research?
Sampling from a population Collecting data through questionnaires or interviews Designing instruments for data collection Obtaining a high response rate Educational Research 2e: Creswell

8 Population, Target Population, Sampling Frame, Sample
The Population The group of individuals having one characteristic that distinguishes them from other groups. The Target Population or Sampling Frame The actual list of sampling units from which the sample is selected. The Sample The group of participants in a study selected from the target population from which the researcher generalizes to the target population. Educational Research 2e: Creswell

9 Reducing error in survey research
Reducing Coverage Error: have a good sampling frame list on which to select individuals Reducing Sampling Error: select as large a sample from the population as possible Reducing Measurement Error: use a good instrument with clear, unambiguous questions and response options Reducing non-response error: use rigorous administration procedures to achieve as large a return rate as possible Educational Research 2e: Creswell

10 Forms of data collection based on who completes or records the data
Participant Researcher Mailed Questionnaire Electronic Questionnaire One on One To a Group Over Telephone Individual Interview Focus Group Interview Telephone Interview Educational Research 2e: Creswell

11 Aspects of survey instrument design
Personal Attitudinal Behavioral Sensitive Scale Open-ended Educational Research 2e: Creswell

12 Question construction problems
Question is unclear Multiple questions Question is wordy Question is negatively worded Overlapping responses Unbalanced response options Mismatch between questions and answers Question includes overly technical language Not all questions are applicable to all the participants Educational Research 2e: Creswell

13 Educational Research 2e: Creswell
Pilot testing Test on a small number of individuals in the sample Ask for written feedback on the questions Revise the survey based on the written comments Exclude the pilot participants from the final sample for the study Educational Research 2e: Creswell

14 Educational Research 2e: Creswell
Response rate Mail out original questionnaire with cover letter Follow it in two weeks with a second mailing of questionnaire to those who have not responded Follow again in two weeks with a postcard to non-respondents reminding them to complete the questionnaire Educational Research 2e: Creswell

15 Three phase survey administration procedure
Step 1: First Mailing of Survey Step 2: Second Mailing of Survey Step 3: Postcard Mailing 2 Weeks 2 Weeks 2 Weeks Start 6 Weeks Time Educational Research 2e: Creswell

16 Planning and conducting a mailed questionnaire survey
Write a cover letter to invite the participants to complete the questionnaire Form and construct the questionnaire Identify what statistical procedures will be used to analyze data from the mailed questionnaire Educational Research 2e: Creswell

17 Planning and designing an interview survey
The interviewer should maintain a neutral stance during the interview Train the interviewers prior to the interview Take good notes of responses or use a tape recorder For telephone interviews, develop a telephone interview guide prior to the interview Educational Research 2e: Creswell

18 Steps in conducting survey research
Decide if a survey is the best deign to use Identify the research questions or hypotheses Identify the population, the sampling frame and the sample Determine the survey design and data collection procedures Develop or locate an instrument Administer the instrument Analyze the data to address the research questions or hypotheses Write the report Educational Research 2e: Creswell

19 Evaluating survey research
Was the target population or sampling frame clearly specified? Was the sampling procedure specified? If a random sample was not used, were modifications from it explained? Was the sample clearly identified and the basis on which it was chosen specified? Did the type of survey match the questions or hypotheses advanced by the author? Was it clear whether a questionnaire or an interview survey comprised the form of data collection? Did the researcher identify the basis for selecting or developing the instrument? Educational Research 2e: Creswell

20 Evaluating survey research
Was information reported on reliability and validity of scores from past use of the questionnaire or interview? Did the author mention the dates on which the questionnaire or interview was administered? Were the administration procedures clearly identified? If a questionnaire was used, were the procedures for obtaining responses identified? Were follow-up procedures used to ensure a high response rate? Did the data analysis match the research questions or hypothesis to be answered in the study? Educational Research 2e: Creswell

21 Evaluating survey research
If an interview was used, were the field procedures for collecting this information specified? Were demographic characteristics, previous experience, training, and monitoring discussed for the interviewer(s)? Did the researcher check on the reliability and validity of scores from the data collection in the study? Was the study written scientifically and ethically? Educational Research 2e: Creswell

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