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Antrim PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 3b Applied Physiology – Respiration & Cardiac Function.

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Presentation on theme: "Antrim PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 3b Applied Physiology – Respiration & Cardiac Function."— Presentation transcript:

1 Antrim PE Revision Course AQA AS PHED 1 Session 3b Applied Physiology – Respiration & Cardiac Function

2 Respiration – need to know Mechanics of breathing Different lung volumes and capacities Interpret spirometer graphs Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in lung alveoli and muscles Process of diffusion Concept of partial pressure

3 Cardiac function – need to know Circulatory system Role of haemoglobin, myoglobin Venous return The a-vO 2 difference Heart structure – cardiac cycle Cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate Control of heart rate Effects of training

4 Breathing Quiet breathing – diaphragm+ intercostals Deep breathing – sternocleidomastoid + pectorals

5 Medulla Oblongata Respiratory Accelerator Centre Respiratory Inhibitory Centre Chemo-receptors CO 2 Inflation of aleveoli Sympathetic (Acc nerve) Parasympathetic Vagus nerve Autonomic breathing control Lungs Intercostal muscles Diaphragm Contract

6 Respiration – Lung Volumes June0 2Q3 Ans

7 Respiration - Ventilation Ventilation = Tidal Volume x Frequency (breathing rate) Frequency/Breathing rate: Resting min-1 Peak: min-1 Tidal volume: Resting 0.5L Peak: 2.25 L Minute Ventilation Resting: 6 lt/min -1 Peak:175 lt/min -1

8 Respiration - O2 Transport Red Blood Cells Haemoglobin > Oxyhaemoglobin From alveoli – to muscle cell boundary Myoglobin > Oxymyoglobin From muscle cell boundary > mitochondria A-V difference Carbon dioxide 70-80% Bicarbonate carbonic acid HCO3 5-10% Dissolved in plasma 5-10% Carbaminohaemoglobin

9 Arterial Blood O 2 % Venous Blood O 2 % a-VO 2 Diff O 2 % More oxygen is extracted by working muscles Rest Intense Exercise Arterial – Venous Oxygen Difference (a-VO2 diff) Jun02Q5 Ans

10 PCO 2 45mm Hg PCO 2 40mm Hg PO 2 40mm Hg PO 2 104mm Hg O2O2 CO 2 Blood Flow in Capillary Capillary Alveolus Gas Exchange

11 Exercise and oxygen disassociation Rise in temperature Acidity rise due to CO 2 LA increase Curve moves to the right More O2 available during exercise Haemoglobin disassociates oxygen more readily Jun02Q5 Ans

12 Pulmonary and systematic circulation Arteries/arterioles/capillaries/venules and veins) Generation of blood pressures/velocities Venous return mechanism Redistribution of blood/vascular shunting Arterio – venous oxygen difference (A-VO 2 diff). Cardiac function Cardiac cycle Cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate and the relationship between them. Heart rate range in response to exercise; hormonal and nervous effects on heart rate; Role of blood carbon dioxide in changing heart rate Cardiac hypertrophy leading to bradycardia/athlete’s heart Starling’s law of the heart Cardio-vascular drift.

13 Blood vessels Arteries - thick muscular walls; take blood away from heart - high pressure; elastic Capillaries - tiny, very thin walls - diffusion of substances in and out Veins - thin walled; carry blood back to heart - need help - venous return Invisible on this scale Arterioles Venules

14 Venous return One-way valves in veins Contraction of skeletal muscles during movements – skeletal pump Compression of chest veins during inspiration, and lowering of thoracic pressure – respiratory pump ‘Suction pressure’ of heart

15 Dynamics of venous return Muscle pump Respiratory pump

16 Blood pressure and velocity Total cross- sectional area ArteriesVeinsVenules Capillaries Arterioles Blood pressure Pressure falls - friction & increasing cross- sectional area Blood velocity Velocity falls and rises – with increasing & decreasing total cross- sectional area Jun04Q5Ans

17 Starlings Law Venous return SV Normal contractility Trained Heart Increased venous return Increased filling of left ventricle Increase in fibre length Increase in contractility Increased stroke volume Trained heart will contract more powerfully Left ventricle

18 Blood Flow - Redistribution Rest Max ExerciseAreaRestMaxMuscles Heart Skin Kidneys Liver & Gut Brain Whole Blood Flow in cm 3 per minute Liver & Gut Jan04Q1 Ans

19 Blood Flow Redistribution - Volume AreaRest Max Ex Muscles Heart Skin Kidneys Liver & Gut Brain Whole Blood Flow in cm 3 per minute Increase in total blood flow (Cardiac Output) SV+ HR+ Increase to skeletal muscles & heart Decrease to liver, gut, kidneys Brain stays same

20 Cardiac cycle Contraction = systole Relaxation = diastole Atrial systole Diastole Ventricular systole The order of contraction Valves close when pressure drops again (diastole) High pressure (systole) in chambers forces valves open

21 Cardiac Output Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume Q. = HR X SV Stroke Volume - Volume of blood ejected each contraction (systole) of the ventricle Rest 60bpm x 83ml = 5000ml -1 (5 litres) Max work (trained) 200bpm x 170ml = 34000ml -1 (34 litres) Units!

22 Cardiac Hypertrophy Increase in heart size due to training Specifically left ventricle Thickening of heart muscle Leads to bradycardia – resting heart rate <60 Cardio-Vascular Drift Decreasing venous return Decrease in stroke volume Heart rate increases

23 Heart Rate Control Adrenaline Conduction of nerve impulses gets quicker Increase in blood pressure Increased levels of carbon dioxide, lactic acid

24 Medulla Oblongata Cardiac Accelerator Centre Cardiac Inhibitory Centre Chemo-receptors CO 2 H + Baro-receptors Blood pressure Sympathetic (Acc nerve) Parasympathetic Vagus nerve Vaso- motor Centre Vaso- constriction or dilation Movement Muscle action Heart Rate Control Jan07Q5Ans

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