2Introduction Aim Use of the Guide This presentation is prepared to support and give a general overview of the ‘How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure’ Guide and should be read in conjunction with the publication.Use of the GuideThis guide aims to give some basic information about the IT infrastructure to the IT managers of companies. Senior managers could also benefit from this guide.The guide covers:What IT infrastructure isParts of an IT infrastructureDevelopment an IT infrastructureMaintenance of an IT infrastructureCost of an IT infrastructure
3What is IT Infrastructure? DefinitionAn IT infrastructure can be defined as a firm’s total investment in computing and communication technology. The main purpose of IT infrastructure is to support the business goals of an organisation through the effective and efficient use of information systems.
4What is IT Infrastructure? InformationAn IT infrastructure mainly consists of technologies that aim to ease the production, distribution and sharing of information; therefore information constitute the core of the IT infrastructure.KnowledgeCapturing knowledge and using past experiences is now an important distinguishing factor for companies.Your IT infrastructure could include components that capture and make use of the knowledge of your employees in a standardised way.
5Parts of an IT Infrastructure Networking Components Hardware ComponentsSoftware ComponentsServersComputer PeripheralsNetworking ComponentsKnowledgeInformationApplication SoftwareOperating Systems
6Hardware Components-Peripherals The physical aspect of computers and other IT devices.1) Computer PeripheralsAll general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:MemoryMass storage deviceInput deviceOutput deviceCentral processing unit (CPU)
7Hardware Components - Servers A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs and/or other computers.
8Hardware Components-Networking 3) Networking ComponentsA network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths.Some of the reasons to implement networks are1:Sharing peripherals,Sharing data files,Sharing applications,Reducing the costs of installing and maintenance of software,Connecting to other networks,Capturing data at its source,Increase productivity,Permitting expansion,Increasing timely communications,Increase management control,1 Schultheis, R., Sumner, M., (1998), “MIS: The Manager’s View”. pp: 283
10Hardware Components-Networking Network ArchitecturesPeer-to-Peer NetworksThere is no central server,Each computer is an equal "peer" of the others,Best suited for less than five users,low-cost, easy-to-install solution,Client/Server NetworksA dedicated server is available,The network needs to be maintained by an administrator,
11Hardware Components-Networking Network ScopeLocal Area Network (LAN)A group of computers share a common communications line within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building)Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)A network that interconnects users resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by a local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN)Wide Area Network (WAN)A computer network that spans arelatively large geographical area
12Hardware Components-Networking Network ScopeIntranetA private network that is contained within an enterprise using Internet standards and technologies,ExtranetAn intranet which is made accessible to customers, partners, suppliers, or others outside the companyInternetA loose coalition of private and public networks joining computers together
13Hardware Components-Networking Speed of Your NetworkBandwidth is used to describe how fast data flow on a given transmission path. The data speed is measured in bits per second (bps).Some examplesCarrier TechnologySpeedApplicationRegular telephone serviceUp to 56 KbpsHome and small business accessIDSL128 KbpsFaster home and small business accessDS1/T-11.544 MbpsLarge company to ISPOC-3/SDHMbpsLarge company backbone
14Hardware Components-Networking What is Broadband?Broadband is the common term for a high bandwidth Internet connection. Data can be transmitted or downloaded up to 40 times faster as a standard telephone and modem.Main benefits of broadband:Always On, Always In TouchGoing GlobalMore Efficient Web ServicesPredictable Costs
15Software ComponentsSoftware is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices.Operating Systems (OS)Application Software
16Software Components – Operating Systems An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer.Win95 / Win98 /Win ME32-bit operating system. Supports multitasking and powerful networking capabilities.Win NT / Win2000 / Win XPWin CEA version of the Windows operating system for handheld computers and wireless communication devices.UNIXUsed for powerful PCs, workstations and midrange computers.Mac OSOperating systems for the Macintosh computers.LINUXFree, reliable alternative to Unix and Windows that runs on many different types of computers.
17Software Components – Application Software Designed to improve the efficiency for a specific business functionOffice software, CAD packages or Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software are some examples
18Software Components – Specialised Software Sometimes companies need specialised software applications that will give them real advantage while they do business. These applications may include structural analysis software, engineering simulation software, knowledge management software etc.
19How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? How do Develop Your IT Infrastructure?PlanningStating RequirementsSelecting the ComponentsTender and ProcurementImplementation and Maintenance
20How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? PlanningDeciding the right IT system for the right business purpose is important,Planning is required to anticipate the expansion of the infrastructure in the medium and longer term,For this, you must have developed an information strategy plan,This is because IT infrastructure planning is the result of the policies described in the IS Planning,
21How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? Stating RequirementsThe requirement statements are critical since they define your procurement.It is advisable to speak with your employees who will be affected by the new system / components.The ideas of your employees will guide you in preparing the requirements.
22How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? Selecting ComponentsHow to Select Your IT Infrastructure ComponentsDetermine Criteria for Making the ChoiceAssociate Weights To Each CriterionScore the Alternatives in Terms of How They Satisfy Each CriterionCalculate a Candidate’s RatingSelect the Suitable Choice
23How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? Selecting Components: An exampleSystem ASystem BFactorsImportance WeightScoreRating (weight*scoreHardware35%9033.257526.25Software40%7028.009537.60Vendor support25%8521.2522.50TOTAL100%82.5086.35
24How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? Tender and ProcurementDetermine the potential suppliers for the procurement,Prefer long-term relationships with your suppliers. Quality, maintenance and support are some reasons preferring long-term relationships.
25How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? Implementation and MaintenanceProvide the appropriate maintenance support to the system,Provide periodic controls over your infrastructure,At least one person should be responsible for the system,Assign suitable budget and resources for the maintenance of the system,Back-up your data periodically (e.g. every day),Protect your backup archive – preferably not in the same place with your servers,Train the end users to overcome problems,Assign a safe place - preferably a separate room - for your servers,Keep original copies of software you buy; you may need them in future.
26How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? Network SecurityIf the system is open to external use, then the system should be adequately secured.Be aware that there may be unauthorized people who can access your information,Sending information by is not safe. If you are sending something confidential, it may be wise to learn more about encryption,Firewalls may be needed to provide a secure network for you,
27ConclusionsYour IT infrastructure is closely related with your business strategy,Follow new technologies and update your system as required,Your IT infrastructure shouldn’t be planned in a piecemeal manner, but in total and in a way to support the information strategy of the organisation,Your current IT infrastructure must be adaptable to new emerging technologies,
28ConclusionsTrain the users if you want to get maximum benefit from your IT infrastructure.Protect your information by small improvements (e.g. anti-virus packages, firewalls),Expenditure on IT infrastructure must be seen as an investment since it involves spending money in a short period of time in order to gain advantage in the longer term.