Presentation on theme: "Develop Your IT Infrastructure. Aim This presentation is prepared to support and give a general overview of the ‘How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure’"— Presentation transcript:
Aim This presentation is prepared to support and give a general overview of the ‘How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure’ Guide and should be read in conjunction with the publication.Introduction Use of the Guide This guide aims to give some basic information about the IT infrastructure to the IT managers of companies. Senior managers could also benefit from this guide. The guide covers: What IT infrastructure is Parts of an IT infrastructure Development an IT infrastructure Maintenance of an IT infrastructure Cost of an IT infrastructure
Definition Definition An IT infrastructure can be defined as a firm’s total investment in computing and communication technology. The main purpose of IT infrastructure is to support the business goals of an organisation through the effective and efficient use of information systems. What is IT Infrastructure?
Information Information An IT infrastructure mainly consists of technologies that aim to ease the production, distribution and sharing of information; therefore information constitute the core of the IT infrastructure. Knowledge Capturing knowledge and using past experiences is now an important distinguishing factor for companies. Your IT infrastructure could include components that capture and make use of the knowledge of your employees in a standardised way. What is IT Infrastructure?
Parts of an IT Infrastructure Hardware Components Software Components Servers Computer Peripherals Networking Components Knowledge Application Software Operating Systems
The physical aspect of computers and other IT devices. 1)Computer Peripherals All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components: Memory Mass storage device Input device Output device Central processing unit (CPU) Hardware Components-Peripherals
2)Servers A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs and/or other computers. Hardware Components - Servers
3)Networking Components A network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths. Some of the reasons to implement networks are 1 : Sharing peripherals, Sharing data files, Sharing applications, Reducing the costs of installing and maintenance of software, Connecting to other networks, Capturing data at its source, Increase productivity, Permitting expansion, Increasing timely communications, Increase management control, Hardware Components-Networking 1 Schultheis, R., Sumner, M., (1998), “MIS: The Manager’s View”. pp: 283
Network Topologies Ring Network Star Network Bus Network Hardware Components-Networking Ring Network Star Networ k Bus Networ k
Network Architectures Peer-to-Peer Networks There is no central server, Each computer is an equal "peer" of the others, Best suited for less than five users, low-cost, easy-to-install solution, Client/Server Networks A dedicated server is available, The network needs to be maintained by an administrator, Hardware Components-Networking
Network Scope Local Area Network (LAN) A group of computers share a common communications line within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A network that interconnects users resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by a local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area Hardware Components-Networking
Network Scope Intranet A private network that is contained within an enterprise using Internet standards and technologies, Extranet An intranet which is made accessible to customers, partners, suppliers, or others outside the company Internet A loose coalition of private and public networks joining computers together Hardware Components-Networking
Speed of Your Network Bandwidth is used to describe how fast data flow on a given transmission path. The data speed is measured in bits per second (bps). Some examples Hardware Components-Networking Carrier TechnologySpeedApplication Regular telephone service Up to 56 KbpsHome and small business access IDSL128 KbpsFaster home and small business access DS1/T-11.544 MbpsLarge company to ISP OC-3/SDH155.52 MbpsLarge company backbone
What is Broadband? Broadband is the common term for a high bandwidth Internet connection. Data can be transmitted or downloaded up to 40 times faster as a standard telephone and modem. Main benefits of broadband: Always On, Always In Touch Going Global More Efficient Web Services Predictable Costs Hardware Components-Networking
Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices. Operating Systems (OS) Application Software Software Components
An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer. Software Components – Operating Systems Win95 / Win98 / Win ME 32-bit operating system. Supports multitasking and powerful networking capabilities. Win NT / Win2000 / Win XP 32-bit operating system. Supports multitasking and powerful networking capabilities. Win CEA version of the Windows operating system for handheld computers and wireless communication devices. UNIXUsed for powerful PCs, workstations and midrange computers. Mac OSOperating systems for the Macintosh computers. LINUXFree, reliable alternative to Unix and Windows that runs on many different types of computers.
Designed to improve the efficiency for a specific business function Office software, CAD packages or Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software are some examples Software Components – Application Software
Sometimes companies need specialised software applications that will give them real advantage while they do business. These applications may include structural analysis software, engineering simulation software, knowledge management software etc. Software Components – Specialised Software
How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? How do Develop Your IT Infrastructure? Planning Stating Requirements Selecting the Components Tender and Procurement Implementation and Maintenance
Planning Deciding the right IT system for the right business purpose is important, Planning is required to anticipate the expansion of the infrastructure in the medium and longer term, For this, you must have developed an information strategy plan, This is because IT infrastructure planning is the result of the policies described in the IS Planning, How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure?
Stating Requirements The requirement statements are critical since they define your procurement. It is advisable to speak with your employees who will be affected by the new system / components. The ideas of your employees will guide you in preparing the requirements. How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure?
Selecting Components How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? How to Select Your IT Infrastructure Components Determine Criteria for Making the Choice Associate Weights To Each Criterion Score the Alternatives in Terms of How They Satisfy Each Criterion Calculate a Candidate’s Rating Select the Suitable Choice
Selecting Components: An example How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure? System ASystem B FactorsImportance Weight ScoreRating (weight*score ScoreRating (weight*score Hardware35%9033.257526.25 Software40%7028.009537.60 Vendor support 25%8521.259022.50 TOTAL100%82.5086.35
Tender and Procurement Determine the potential suppliers for the procurement, Prefer long-term relationships with your suppliers. Quality, maintenance and support are some reasons preferring long-term relationships. How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure?
Implementation and Maintenance Provide the appropriate maintenance support to the system, Provide periodic controls over your infrastructure, At least one person should be responsible for the system, Assign suitable budget and resources for the maintenance of the system, Back-up your data periodically (e.g. every day), Protect your backup archive – preferably not in the same place with your servers, Train the end users to overcome problems, Assign a safe place - preferably a separate room - for your servers, Keep original copies of software you buy; you may need them in future. How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure?
Network Security If the system is open to external use, then the system should be adequately secured. Be aware that there may be unauthorized people who can access your information, Sending information by email is not safe. If you are sending something confidential, it may be wise to learn more about encryption, Firewalls may be needed to provide a secure network for you, How to Develop Your IT Infrastructure?
Conclusions Your IT infrastructure is closely related with your business strategy, Follow new technologies and update your system as required, Your IT infrastructure shouldn’t be planned in a piecemeal manner, but in total and in a way to support the information strategy of the organisation, Your current IT infrastructure must be adaptable to new emerging technologies,
Conclusions Train the users if you want to get maximum benefit from your IT infrastructure. Protect your information by small improvements (e.g. anti-virus packages, firewalls), Expenditure on IT infrastructure must be seen as an investment since it involves spending money in a short period of time in order to gain advantage in the longer term.