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V model is also called verification and validation model. The V-Shaped life cycle is a sequential path of execution of processes. Each phase must be completed before the next phase begins. Testing of the product is planned in parallel with a corresponding phase of development. Key Points
The requirements of the proposed system are collected by analyzing the needs of the users. This phase is concerned with establishing what the ideal system has to perform. However it does not determine how the software will be designed or built. Usually, the users are interviewed and a document called the user requirements document is generated. The user requirements document will typically describe the system’s functional, interface, performance, data, security, etc. requirements. Acceptance test plan is created in this phase. Requirement phase
Figure out possibilities and techniques by which the user requirements can be implemented. If any of the requirements are not feasible, the user is informed of the issue. A resolution is found and the user requirements document is edited. System test plan is created I this phase. System Design
It is high level design of the project. It should consist the list of modules, brief functionality of each module, their interface relation, dependencies, database tables, architecture diagrams, technology details etc. Integration test plan is created in this phase. Architecture Design
Module Design Module design can also be referred as low level design. The design system is broken into smaller modules and each module is explained so that the programmer can start coding right away. It contains detailed functional logic of each module. Unit testing is planned in this phase.
Coding is at the core of V-model. Writing and testing unit tests plays an important and integral part. Coding
Unit testing Unit testing is a method by which individual units of source code are tested to determine if they are fit for use. A unit is the smallest testable part of the application. The purpose is to verify the internal logic code by testing every single branch within the function.
Separate modules will be tested together to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components. The testing is done from the technical perspective of the product. Integration testing
System Testing System testing compares the system specifications against the actual system. The testing is done from the end user perspective.
User Acceptance testing User acceptance testing is done to determine whether a system satisfies the requirements specified in the requirement analysis phase. It determines whether the system is acceptable or not.