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SMAK BPK PENABUR SUKABUMI GRADE XI – SCIENCE CLASS Lectures by : Agustina Eka H.,S.SI.

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Presentation on theme: "SMAK BPK PENABUR SUKABUMI GRADE XI – SCIENCE CLASS Lectures by : Agustina Eka H.,S.SI."— Presentation transcript:

1 SMAK BPK PENABUR SUKABUMI GRADE XI – SCIENCE CLASS Lectures by : Agustina Eka H.,S.SI.

2 the smallest basic unit of cells a group of cells that have similar forms, composition, and function a unit of several types of tissues that are close to each other and support certain functions some organs which are coordinate each other and conducting certain functions cells tissue organ organism Organ system

3 A.Meristematic Tissue  Apical meristem  Lateral meristem  Intercalary meristem B.Permanent Tissue 1. Simple permanent tissue  Parenchyma  Collenchyma  Sclerenchyma 2. Complex permanent tissue  Xylem  Phloem 3. Protective tissue  Epidermis  Cork (phellem)

4 1.have thin cellulose cell walls. 2.The meristematic cells may be spherical,oval,polygonal or rectangular in shape. 3.compactly arranged & do not contain any intercellular space between them. 4.contains dense or abundant cytoplasm & a single large nucleus. 5.contain few vacuoles or no vacuoles at all

5 Are located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots Are located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots Elongate shoots and roots through primary growth Elongate shoots and roots through primary growth The root tip is covered by a root cap The root tip is covered by a root cap Primary meristem Primary meristem

6 Add thickness to woody plants through secondary growth Add thickness to woody plants through secondary growth Secondary meristem Secondary meristem cambium : cambium : 1)Vascular cambium 2)Cork cambium

7 Located between xylem and phloem Vascular cambium C X C P C X C X C P P P C X X P C X X C C Types of cell division. An initial can divide transversely to form two cambial initials (C) or radially to form an initial and either a xylem (X) or phloem (P) cell. (a) Accumulation of secondary growth. Although shown here as alternately adding xylem and phloem, a cambial initial usually produces much more xylem. (b)

8 An overview of primary and secondary growth An overview of primary and secondary growth In woody plants, there are lateral meristems that add secondary growth, increasing the girth of roots and stems. Apical meristems add primary growth, or growth in length. Vascular cambium Cork cambium Lateral meristems Root apical meristems Primary growth in stems Epidermis Cortex Primary phloem Primary xylem Pith Secondary growth in stems Periderm Cork cambium Cortex Primary phloem Secondary phloem Vascular cambium Secondary xylem Primary xylem Pith Shoot apical meristems (in buds) The cork cambium adds secondary dermal tissue. The vascular cambium adds secondary xylem and phloem.

9 Intercalary meristem : Intercalary meristem : located between mature tissues, ex : base of nodes in grass stem Gramineae or Poaceae Gramineae or Poaceae (rice, corn, sugar cane)

10 Outer layer Outer layer Tightly cell Tightly cell Function : to protect the underlying cell Function : to protect the underlying cell Modification : hair, spine, trichome, stomata, lenticell, root hair, cuticule Modification : hair, spine, trichome, stomata, lenticell, root hair, cuticule

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12 TWIG WITH LENTICELS

13 Large cell, thin wall, large vacuoles Large cell, thin wall, large vacuoles Types : 1 ) aerenchyma : aquatic plant 2) Chlorenchyma : containing chloroplast

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15 Function : supporting and strengthening tissue Cellulose and pectin thickening in the corner of the cell Cellulose and pectin thickening in the corner of the cell

16 Function : organ support Function : organ support Inactive cell Inactive cell Cellulose and lignin thickening Cellulose and lignin thickening Sclereids : Hard and rigid Hard and rigid Stem cortex, leaf venetin, root, fruit, and seed Stem cortex, leaf venetin, root, fruit, and seed Fiber: hard elongated cells hard elongated cells Gymnosperm woody fiber, bark, leaf fiber, seed fiber Gymnosperm woody fiber, bark, leaf fiber, seed fiber

17 Right-hand illustration modified from: Weier, Stocking & Barbour, 1974, Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology, 5th Ed. SCLERIDSFIBERS

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19 Secrete various substances Secrete various substances

20 Water and mineral transportation Water and mineral transportation Lignin thickening Lignin thickening Consists of : 1)Trachea/vessel element 2)Tracheid 3)Xylem fiber 4)Xylem parenchyma

21 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 35.8

22 Conduction of nutrition Conduction of nutrition Consists of : 1)Sieve tube 2)Companion cell 3)Phloem fiber 4)Phloem parenchyma

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