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Type (II) Hypersensitivity. ( ( cytotoxic hypersensitivity ) Antibody directed against cell surface or tissue antigens interacts with complement and a.

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Presentation on theme: "Type (II) Hypersensitivity. ( ( cytotoxic hypersensitivity ) Antibody directed against cell surface or tissue antigens interacts with complement and a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Type (II) Hypersensitivity. ( ( cytotoxic hypersensitivity ) Antibody directed against cell surface or tissue antigens interacts with complement and a variety of effecter cells to bring about damage to the target cells. Antibody directed against cell surface or tissue antigens interacts with complement and a variety of effecter cells to bring about damage to the target cells. Drug-induced hemolytic anemia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia are such examples. Drug-induced hemolytic anemia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia are such examples. granulocytopeniathrombocytopenia granulocytopeniathrombocytopenia

2 The reaction time is minutes to hours. The reaction time is minutes to hours. The antigens are normally endogenous, although exogenous chemicals (haptens) which can attach to cell membranes. IgG and IgM mainly antibody that react in type (II) hypersensitivity. Phagocytes and K cells may also play a role (ADCC). The lesion contains antibody, complement and neutrophils

3 Hello! Hypersensitivity type (II) are triggered by Ab reacting with antigenic determinants which form part of the cell membrane

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5 This is the normal appearance of the thyroid gland on the anterior trachea of the neck. The thyroid gland has a right lobe and a left lobe connected by a narrow isthmus..

6 Hashimotos thyroiditis initially cause thyroid enlargement. Hashimotos thyroiditis initially cause thyroid enlargement. Later there may be atrophy and fibrosis. Later there may be atrophy and fibrosis. The gland appears firm, fleshy and pale The gland appears firm, fleshy and pale

7 This symmetrically small thyroid gland demonstrates atrophy. This patient was hypothyroid. This is the end result of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Initially, the thyroid is enlarged and there may be transient hyperthyroidism, followed by a euthyroid state and then hypothyroidism with eventual atrophy years later.

8 Hashimotos thyroiditis. The gland is slightly enlarged and the lobes have been sliced to show the uniformly pale and fleshy cut surface.

9 Histopathologically Histopathologically - The gland is denesely infiltrated by - The gland is denesely infiltrated by lymphocytes and plasma cells. lymphocytes and plasma cells. - Lymphoid follicle formation. - Lymphoid follicle formation. - Colloid center is reduced. - Colloid center is reduced. - Thyroid epithelial cells show change in - Thyroid epithelial cells show change in which they enlarge and develop eosinophilic which they enlarge and develop eosinophilic granular cytoplasm (Hürthle cells). granular cytoplasm (Hürthle cells). - In advance case fibrosis - In advance case fibrosis

10 Thyroid with Hashimoto's thyroiditis,the lymphoid follicle at the right center. This is an autoimmune disease and often antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies can be detected.

11 This high power microscopic view of the thyroid with Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates the pink Hurthle cells at the center and right. The lymphoid follicle is at the left. Hashimoto's thyroiditis initially leads to painless enlargement of the thyroid, followed by atrophy years later.

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14 Histological features of Hashimotos thyroiditis. There is destruction of follicles by a dense lymphocytic infiltrate with germinal center formation (right). Some of the surviving epithelial cells show Hurthle cell change (lower left).


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