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Living with Water Scarcity By Muhammad Saidam, PhD Royal Scientific Society – JORDAN February 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Living with Water Scarcity By Muhammad Saidam, PhD Royal Scientific Society – JORDAN February 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Living with Water Scarcity By Muhammad Saidam, PhD Royal Scientific Society – JORDAN February 2010

2 Outline  The water scarcity backdrop  Roots, worldwide extent, e.g. MENA region.  Implications  Food production, health, environment, poverty, relations  Mitigation and alternatives

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4 m 3 /capita/year Source: Malin Falkenmarks (Stockholm International Water Institute) Water Scarcity Indices 1000 m 3 /capita/year is, on average, the minimum amount of water required to satisfy a person’s need for drinking, hygiene and food chronic water scarcity <500 m 3 /capita/year beyond the ‘water barrier’ of manageable capability water stress (1000 – 1600)

5 Rogers, 2008

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8 Total Renewable Water Withdrawn (%) Source: Compiled from FAO AQUASTAT data for 1998–2002.

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11 11 Jordan   Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)   Terrain: Mostly desert plateau in east (80%)   Population: ~ million (2007), Growth ~ 2.2%

12 Freshwater Availability 12 ~ 87% receives < 200 mm/yr ~ 75% receives < 100 mm/yr Source: NMP

13 Projections 13

14 Water Issues …  Availability: insufficient per capita quantity insufficient per capita quantity discontinuous supply ( two days per week) discontinuous supply ( two days per week)  Accessibility / affordability Water supply is still subsidized by the government Water supply is still subsidized by the government water prices still affordable by the poor water prices still affordable by the poor water prices for tanked water are 8-10 times more than piped water water prices for tanked water are 8-10 times more than piped water  Water Quality: Groundwater of increasing salinity Groundwater of increasing salinity Surface water is inadequate for drinking without extensive treatment Surface water is inadequate for drinking without extensive treatment 14

15 Impact of Climate Change a 20% decrease in rainfall

16 Declining Dead Sea Water Source: World Bank, Red Sea - Dead Sea Study, 2008

17 Consequences… Dead Sea!

18 The Red-Dead Proposed Canal

19 Less Food produced Locally Water Scarcity

20 Children mostly affected The poor get poorer Public Health deterioration Pollution of rivers More treatment, increase cost Loss of biodiversity environmental degradation Agriculture Tourism Industrial Sectoral competition Further Treatment Higher costs Increasing salinity of groundwater Domestically Trans-boundary Interregional / international Conflict Quality of life deterioration

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26 Water Scarcity can be an opportunity TradeInvestmentR & D

27 Mechanisms for transboundary management Technology transfer / adaptation /sharing data / experience Global Policies Governance Sectoral integration National Local Shared Responsibility

28 WORLD WATER COUNCIL, 2009 International trade But imported food is often beyond financial affordability of the poor?

29 9.0 Asia / Oceania 5.0 South / Latin America 4.5 Europe 3.6 USA / Canada 0.2 Africa 0.2 Middle East Investments in $ trillions Rogers, 2008

30 Waterless sanitation Irrigation Saline agriculture Conservation Appropriate low-cost Desalination: Cost reduction Recycling W&WW Treatment technologies Decision making For awareness Education Data Sharing and exchange Water Informatics Leaks and unlawful use Contaminants, especially biological agents Sensors

31 Improve management practices of water resources increased productivity sustainability Better sectoral integration But we need to empower people through awareness, education and technological tools?

32 Water EnvironmentEnergy

33 multi-disciplinary Political Socio- economics Cultural, Ethical Environment S & T Instruments

34 Concluding Note

35 THANK YOU for your attention


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