Presentation on theme: "Living with Water Scarcity By Muhammad Saidam, PhD Royal Scientific Society – JORDAN February 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Living with Water Scarcity By Muhammad Saidam, PhD Royal Scientific Society – JORDAN February 2010
Outline The water scarcity backdrop Roots, worldwide extent, e.g. MENA region. Implications Food production, health, environment, poverty, relations Mitigation and alternatives
m 3 /capita/year Source: Malin Falkenmarks (Stockholm International Water Institute) Water Scarcity Indices 1000 m 3 /capita/year is, on average, the minimum amount of water required to satisfy a person’s need for drinking, hygiene and food chronic water scarcity <500 m 3 /capita/year beyond the ‘water barrier’ of manageable capability water stress (1000 – 1600)
Total Renewable Water Withdrawn (%) Source: Compiled from FAO AQUASTAT data for 1998–2002.
11 Jordan Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April) Terrain: Mostly desert plateau in east (80%) Population: ~ million (2007), Growth ~ 2.2%
Water Issues … Availability: insufficient per capita quantity insufficient per capita quantity discontinuous supply ( two days per week) discontinuous supply ( two days per week) Accessibility / affordability Water supply is still subsidized by the government Water supply is still subsidized by the government water prices still affordable by the poor water prices still affordable by the poor water prices for tanked water are 8-10 times more than piped water water prices for tanked water are 8-10 times more than piped water Water Quality: Groundwater of increasing salinity Groundwater of increasing salinity Surface water is inadequate for drinking without extensive treatment Surface water is inadequate for drinking without extensive treatment 14
Impact of Climate Change a 20% decrease in rainfall
Declining Dead Sea Water Source: World Bank, Red Sea - Dead Sea Study, 2008
Consequences… Dead Sea!
The Red-Dead Proposed Canal
Less Food produced Locally Water Scarcity
Children mostly affected The poor get poorer Public Health deterioration Pollution of rivers More treatment, increase cost Loss of biodiversity environmental degradation Agriculture Tourism Industrial Sectoral competition Further Treatment Higher costs Increasing salinity of groundwater Domestically Trans-boundary Interregional / international Conflict Quality of life deterioration
Water Scarcity can be an opportunity TradeInvestmentR & D
Mechanisms for transboundary management Technology transfer / adaptation /sharing data / experience Global Policies Governance Sectoral integration National Local Shared Responsibility
WORLD WATER COUNCIL, 2009 International trade But imported food is often beyond financial affordability of the poor?
9.0 Asia / Oceania 5.0 South / Latin America 4.5 Europe 3.6 USA / Canada 0.2 Africa 0.2 Middle East Investments in $ trillions Rogers, 2008
Waterless sanitation Irrigation Saline agriculture Conservation Appropriate low-cost Desalination: Cost reduction Recycling W&WW Treatment technologies Decision making For awareness Education Data Sharing and exchange Water Informatics Leaks and unlawful use Contaminants, especially biological agents Sensors
Improve management practices of water resources increased productivity sustainability Better sectoral integration But we need to empower people through awareness, education and technological tools?
multi-disciplinary Political Socio- economics Cultural, Ethical Environment S & T Instruments