500 - 1000 m 3 /capita/year Source: Malin Falkenmarks (Stockholm International Water Institute) Water Scarcity Indices 1000 m 3 /capita/year is, on average, the minimum amount of water required to satisfy a person’s need for drinking, hygiene and food chronic water scarcity <500 m 3 /capita/year beyond the ‘water barrier’ of manageable capability water stress (1000 – 1600)
Water Issues … Availability: insufficient per capita quantity insufficient per capita quantity discontinuous supply ( two days per week) discontinuous supply ( two days per week) Accessibility / affordability Water supply is still subsidized by the government Water supply is still subsidized by the government water prices still affordable by the poor water prices still affordable by the poor water prices for tanked water are 8-10 times more than piped water water prices for tanked water are 8-10 times more than piped water Water Quality: Groundwater of increasing salinity Groundwater of increasing salinity Surface water is inadequate for drinking without extensive treatment Surface water is inadequate for drinking without extensive treatment 14
Impact of Climate Change a 20% decrease in rainfall
Declining Dead Sea Water Source: World Bank, Red Sea - Dead Sea Study, 2008
Children mostly affected The poor get poorer Public Health deterioration Pollution of rivers More treatment, increase cost Loss of biodiversity environmental degradation Agriculture Tourism Industrial Sectoral competition Further Treatment Higher costs Increasing salinity of groundwater Domestically Trans-boundary Interregional / international Conflict Quality of life deterioration
Water Scarcity can be an opportunity TradeInvestmentR & D
Mechanisms for transboundary management Technology transfer / adaptation /sharing data / experience Global Policies Governance Sectoral integration National Local Shared Responsibility
WORLD WATER COUNCIL, 2009 International trade But imported food is often beyond financial affordability of the poor?
9.0 Asia / Oceania 5.0 South / Latin America 4.5 Europe 3.6 USA / Canada 0.2 Africa 0.2 Middle East Investments in $ trillions 2005 - 2030 Rogers, 2008
Waterless sanitation Irrigation Saline agriculture Conservation Appropriate low-cost Desalination: Cost reduction Recycling W&WW Treatment technologies Decision making For awareness Education Data Sharing and exchange Water Informatics Leaks and unlawful use Contaminants, especially biological agents Sensors
Improve management practices of water resources increased productivity sustainability Better sectoral integration But we need to empower people through awareness, education and technological tools?