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Water Resources Planning and Management Daene C. McKinney Water Availability.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Resources Planning and Management Daene C. McKinney Water Availability."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Resources Planning and Management Daene C. McKinney Water Availability

2 Global Water Resources Only this portion is renewable saline (salt) water: 10 to 100g/L (34g/L) brackish water: 1 to 10g/L (treatable) Fresh water: <1g/L (drinkable)

3 Global Water Cycle Principal sources of fresh water for human activities (44,800 km3/yr)

4 Global Water Availability

5 The Importance of Water Human / Environmental Health Dignity / Gender Equity Economic Growth / Poverty Reduction Environment and Ecosystem Services Food Security / Crops and Fisheries Energy Generation / Flood Control Conflict Prevention and Mitigation Summary of the World Water Crisis and USG Investments in the Water Sector, USAID, 2010

6 Population and Water Use global freshwater use is ~4000 km3/year ~10% of the renewable supply (44,800km3/year)

7 Water Cycle Diagram Global Water Security – an engineering perspective The Royal Academy of Engineering, 2010

8 Global Water Withdrawal

9 Global Water Withdrawals World Water Assessment Programme. 2009. The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Paris: UNESCO, and London: Earthscan

10 Global Water Use

11 Water Use by Sector World Water Assessment Programme. 2009. The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Paris: UNESCO, and London: Earthscan

12 Water Supply and Sanitation Supply (2002) –1.1 billion people lacked access to improved water sources (17% of global population) –Nearly two thirds live in Asia (733 million people) –42% of Sub-Saharan Africa is without improved water Sanitation (2002) –2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation (42% of global population) –Over half of those live in China + India (~ 1.5 billion people) –64% of Sub-Saharan Africa without sanitation coverage –69% of rural dwellers in developing countries without access to improved sanitation (27% for urban dwellers)

13 Access to Safe Water 2009: 800 million people lacked access to an “improved” water sources. Summary of the World Water Crisis and USG Investments in the Water Sector, USAID, 2010

14 Access to Sanitation Summary of the World Water Crisis and USG Investments in the Water Sector, USAID, 2010 2009: more than 2 billion people lacked access to basic sanitation facilities

15 Water Supply and Sanitation Diarrhea (2004) –1.8 million people die every year from diarrheal diseases (including cholera) –90% are children under 5 in developing countries –88% of diarrheal disease is attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation and hygiene –Improved access to water supply and sanitation can reduce diarrhea morbidity by more than 1 million per year http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/burden/en/index.html

16 Diarrhea is the Second Leading Cause of Death in Children Worldwide 2008: Nearly 1.8 million children under the age of 5 died from diarrhea. This can be reduced by 30-40%. Summary of the World Water Crisis and USG Investments in the Water Sector, USAID, 2010

17 Poverty and Development Two thirds of the 884 million people (2009) without access to safe drinking water live on less than $2 per day. The urban poor population is large and growing rapidly. Half of urban residents live in slums where the no formal access to water or sanitation is typical. > 1 billion people live in extreme poverty (< $1 a day) http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/resources/fastfacts_e.htm http://stats.oecd.org/qwids

18 Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa World Water Assessment Programme. 2009. The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Paris: UNESCO, and London: Earthscan

19 Water, Sanitation & Poverty World Water Assessment Programme. 2009. The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Paris: UNESCO, and London: Earthscan

20 Domestic Water Use Survival = 5 L/day Drinking, cooking, bathing, and sanitation = 50 L United States = 250 to 300 L Netherlands = 104 L Somalia = 9 L * L/c/d = liters per person per day

21 Water Stress Index Based on human consumption –linked to population growth Domestic requirement: –About 100 L/c/d = 40 m 3 /c/yr Associated agricultural, industrial & energy need: –About 20 x 40 m 3 /c/yr = 800 m 3 /c/yr Total need: –840 m 3 /c/yr –About 1000 m 3 /c/yr

22 Water Stress Index Water availability below 1,000 m 3 /c/yr –chronic water related problems impeding development and harming human health Water sufficiency: >1700 m 3 /c/yr Water stress: <1700 m 3 /c/yr Water scarcity: <1000 m 3 /c/yr

23 Water Scarcity (2008) Summary of the World Water Crisis and USG Investments in the Water Sector, USAID, 2010 In 2008, over 1.54 billion people suffered from water stress

24 Water Scarcity (2030) Summary of the World Water Crisis and USG Investments in the Water Sector, USAID, 2010 By 2030, 3.3 billion people will live “water stress” conditions

25 Water Availability - USA USA –Area 9.36mln km 2 –Population304mln, 2008 From: Shiklomanov http://espejo.unesco.org.uy/] Water Resources (bln m3/yr)Water Availability (1000 m3/yr) Trans- boundaryLocalTotalper km2per capita Minimum107205821652317 Average1482930307832910 Maximum1783864404243213

26 Water Availability - USA http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/pdf/circular1268.pdf

27 Water Use - USA http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/index.html

28 Trends http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/index.html

29 Trends http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/index.html

30 Texas River Basins

31 Texas Aquifers

32 Texas Water Planning Regions

33 Texas Regional Water Planning State Water Plan provides for development, management, and conservation of water resources and preparation for and response to drought conditions, in order that sufficient water will be available at a reasonable cost to ensure public health, safety, and welfare; further economic development; and protect the agricultural and natural resources of the entire state Steps: –Describe the regional water planning area. –Quantify current and projected population and water demand –Evaluate and quantify current water supplies –Identify surpluses and needs –Evaluate water management strategies and prepare plans to meet the needs –Recommend regulatory, administrative, and legislative changes; and –Adopt the plan, including the required level of public participation. http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/publications/reports/State_Water_Plan/2007/2007StateWaterPlan/2007StateWaterPlan.htm

34 Texas Water Demand http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/wrpi/swp/swp.htm

35 Capital Cost ($ billion) Total = $173 Billion

36 Texas Senate Bill 1 (1997) SB-1 Directed TCEQ to develop Water Availability Models (WAM) Water Availability Models –Determine how much water is available to meet existing or permit new water rights Assess availability and reliability (volume and time) based on simulating river management and water allocation using historic, naturalized flows, prior appropriation water rights, and institutional policies of water allocation and reservoir storage –Provide consistent set of planning tools and data sets for water planning in all 23 Tx basins Regional planning and processing of new water permits Simulation model: WRAP, data sets developed in ArcHydro http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/permitting/water_supply/water_rights/wam.html

37 Texas Water Use Permits Any change in water use requires new assessment 22 River Basins - Permits approved if –Unappropriated water is available, –A beneficial use is established –Water conservation will be practiced –Existing water rights are not impaired, and –Water use is not detrimental to public welfare. 23 rd Basin - Rio Grande –Over appropriated for many years –No new rights for additional water use being granted –Rights are commonly transferred between users

38 WRAP Model Simulate any of the 23 Texas basins Compute ability to meet water demands under potential scenarios –Inputs: Flows, demands, parameters, losses, infrastructure, operating rules, control points –Control Points: Reservoirs, diversions, return flows, hydropower plants, environmental flow points, other system control locations –Compute at each control point: Naturalized flow - No basin development Regulated flow - Full water rights Unappropriated flow - Available for new permit Scenarios –Authorized use: Full water rights demanded, no return flows, used to approve new permit applications –Current use: Actual historic water use demended, return flows included, used to determine cancellation of permits for non-use

39 WRAP Model: Structure & Inputs

40 WRAP Model: Results


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