Presentation on theme: "US National Security Policies and Energy NS4053 Week 10.2."— Presentation transcript:
US National Security Policies and Energy NS4053 Week 10.2
Agenda Review US National Security Strategy documents 1990-2012 for discussions of energy security. Review US Energy Security Strategy documents (2001 and 2011). Review role of Congress in energy security policy.
NSS 1990 on energy Ensure access to Mid East oil. Prevent proliferation of nuclear technologies useful for weapons programs. Maintain strategic petroleum reserve. Promote diversification of energy supply. Promote conservation.
NSS 1998 on energy Promote conservation and efficiency. Diversify energy sources by development of oil resources in Caspian basin. – Work to improve pipeline network in Central Asia. Protect access to existing overseas sources of oil, especially in Mid East.
NSS 2002 on energy Voluntary cuts by industry in greenhouse gases and ‘cap and trade’. Improved measurements on emissions. Promote clean technology (cleaner coal, nuclear, and renewables). Increase federal R&D. Assist developing countries to develop efficient clean energy.
NSS 2006 on energy Enhance energy security and clean development. Open, integrate and diversify energy markets. Reduce reliance on foreign energy sources. Concern over China acting as if it can ‘lock-up’ energy sources around the world.
NSS 2010 on energy “We must transform the way that we use energy—diversifying supplies, investing in innovation, and deploying clean energy technologies. By doing so, we will enhance energy security, create jobs, and fight climate change. “ NSS 2010 – Promote safe nuclear energy. – Work to increase energy security by cooperating with international partners.
US Energy Security Strategy (2001) Mitigating high energy prices. Protecting health and environment. Increasing energy conservation and efficiency. Increasing domestic energy supplies. Increasing supply of renewable and alternative energy. Invest in energy infrastructure. Improve international alliances and commercial relations to facilitate energy trade.
US Energy Security Strategy (2011) Expand energy production in U.S. Encourage cleaner safer energy production abroad. Promote alternative energy choices for consumer market. Improve domestic energy efficiency. Promote clean energy innovation. Create markets for energy innovation.
Expand safe energy production in U.S. Safety after BP oil spill in Gulf of Mexico. Efficiency and integrity of oversight by splitting up Minerals Management Service. Alter lease terms to reward rapid development (Texas model). Offshore development for oil and wind power. Address public concerns about fracking.
Promote energy production abroad Push to reduce subsidies for energy in other countries. Expand natural gas. Reduce methane production. Increase oil production. Encourage sustainable biofuels. Transition to electric vehicles. Promote energy efficiency and alternative energy.
Promote alternative energy for consumers Increase fuel economy standards. Encourage use of biofuels. Public transit investments. Infrastructure investments. Electric vehicles. Alternative transportation.
Improve domestic energy efficiency Grants, rebates, tax credits for retrofitting or using energy efficient building materials. Training and education. More information, more R&D. Improved building codes.
Alternative energy development Offshore wind, nuclear, clean coal, solar, etc. Modernize energy grid. Tax credits for clean energy. Use federal lands for clean energy project sites.
Use federal government spending to spur innovation and create markets Federal R&D spending. Federal vehicle fleet: hybrid and natural gas vehicles. Federal buildings: improve energy efficiency through technology and siting. Federal lands: develop utility-scale alternative energy projects.
Defense Strategy Defense Strategic Guidance 2012: – no mention of energy security (or even energy.) Defense Operational Energy Strategy 2011: – “More fight, less fuel”: reduce consumption – “More options, less risk”: diversify sources – “More capability, less cost”: incorporate energy security into future planning: – Goals: save lives, lighten logistic load, diversify sources, acquire better information on usage, more military output for given energy input.
Enacting national security strategies Role of National Security Council – Principals Committee – Deputies Committee – Interagency Policy Committees Role of Congress: – “legislative Darwinism”
1. Bill introduction 2. Referral to committee(s) 3. Committee hearings 4. Committee mark-up 5. Committee report 6. Scheduling legislation 7. House: special rules, suspension of the rules, or privileged matter 8. Senate: unanimous consent agreements or motions to proceed 9. Floor debate 10. Floor amendment 11. Vote on final passage 12. Reconciling differences between the house and senate 13. Amendments between the houses, or 14. Conference committee negotiations 15. Floor debate on conference report 16. Floor vote on conference report 17. Conference version presented to the president 18. President signs into law or allows bill to become law without his signature 19. President vetoes bill 20. First chamber vote on overriding veto 21. Second chamber vote on overriding veto 22. Bill becomes law if 2/3 vote to override is achieved in both chambers 23. Bill fails to become law if one chamber fails to override
Energy Legislation: 212 th Congress Referred to committee: 239 Reported by committee: 36 Passed House: 8 Passed Senate: 3 Signed by the President: 1 – Hoover Power Allocation Act of 2011.
Energy Legislation: 211 th Congress Referred to committee: 201 Reported by committee: 23 Passed House: 15 Passed both houses: 2 Signed by President: 2 – Exclude safety, security and surveillance alarm power supplies from energy efficiency standards. – Extend the deadline to commence construction of hydroelectric projects.
To be fair to 112 th Congress Bills signed by President containing some reference to: – Alternative/renewables: 9 – Coal: 2 – Electric power: 5 – Assistance to poor/seniors: 3 – Energy conservation and efficiency: 7 Bills are mostly: – Consolidated appropriations acts – DoD appropriations or authorization acts – http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/browse?status=28, 29#text=energy¤t_status=28
Final thoughts National strategy documents are ultimately political documents. National strategy documents reflect a time and place. – Short-term pressures shape long-term objectives. Translating strategy into programs and capabilities is unpredictable. – Interagency process coordination shapes product for good and ill. – If it requires authorization and appropriation by Congress, record of success is very mixed.