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1Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 9:Reconstruction and the New SouthStudy PresentationThis slide introduces Chapter 4, “Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony.”
2Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction Section 2: Reconstruction in GeorgiaSection 3: Georgia’s Redemption YearsSection 4: The New SouthClick the section title to move to the section you need.
3Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat were Lincoln’s plans for rebuilding the South after the Civil War?This is an essential question for this section of the chapter.
4Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction What words do I need to know?freedmenFreedmen’s BureauReconstructiondisfranchiseThirteenth AmendmentNullifyassassinated
5Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction What people do I need to know?Abraham LincolnJohn Wilkes BoothAndrew Johnson
6Conditions in Georgia at the end of the war: farms were in ruinshomes, railways, bridges,roads were destroyed or in need of repairnot enough foodbanks were closed – Confederate money was worthlessthe state owed $20,000,000 in war debt25,000 Georgians had died of wounds or disease – many more were crippled and could not work
7The Freedmen Problems of freedmen (former slaves): homelesshungryuneducatedfree for the 1st timeno property or goodsMany former slaves feared re-enslavementMost whites had difficulty treating freeman as free persons
8The Freedmen’s BureauStarted as the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands by U.S. government in 1865Its job was to help freed slaves and poor whites with basic needs of food, clothing, and shelterThe purpose shifted to educationSet up 4,000 primary schoolsStarted industrial schools for jobs trainingStarted teacher-training schoolsMissionaries started schools like Atlanta University, Morehouse College, and Clark College
9Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln wanted to rebuild and return the south to the Union as soon as possible“Reconstruction” would have two parts:Southerners would be pardoned after taking an oath of allegiance;When 10% of voters had taken the oath, the state could rejoin the Union and form a state government.Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865 during a play at Ford’s Theater by actor John Wilkes Booth.Vice President Andrew Johnson took over as President.
10Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan to reconstruct the south was challenged. Some northerners called “Radical Republicans” thought the south should be more severely punished.The Radical Republicans wanted to make sure the freedmen retained their new rights.Confederate President Jefferson Davis was captured and imprisoned.
11Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan In addition to Lincoln’s requirements, President Johnson added a few more. Southern states had to:approve (ratify) the 13th Amendment (outlawing slavery);nullify their ordinances of secession;promise not to repay money borrowed during the war.Click to return to the Table of Contents
12Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat changes occurred in Georgia during Reconstruction?This is an essential question for this section of the chapter.
13Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia What words do I need to know?provisionaldiscriminationBlack CodesFourteenth AmendmentcarpetbaggerscalawagKu Klux Klan
14Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia What words do I need to know?suffrageGeorgia ActFifteenth Amendmentimpeachsharecroppingcredittenant farming
15Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia What people do I need to know?James JohnsonGeneral John PopeHenry McNeal Turner
16The Constitutional Convention of 1865 President Johnson appointed James Johnson as Georgia’s provisional Governor.Governor Johnson held a Constitutional Convention. The representatives voted to abolish slavery and repeal the ordinance of secession.Elections were held in November 1865 for a new legislature.The General Assembly voted to extend rights to freedmen.
17Black CodesBlack Codes were laws passed to keep freedmen from having the same rights as whites.Didn’t allow blacks: the same jobs as whites, the right to vote, the right to marry a white person, jury service, or the right to testify.Blacks could be: whipped as punishment, forced to work from sunrise to sunset six days per week, or put in jail if they didn’t have a job.
18Congressional Reconstruction Congress was angry about Georgia’s Black Codes, so it passed the Civil Rights Act of This law gave:citizenship to all freedmen;the federal government power to intervene any time civil rights were taken from freedmen.The 14th Amendment was passed granting citizenship to freedmen and required “equal protection under the law.”
19Congressional Reconstruction Congress required southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment.Georgia and most of the other southern states refused.Congress abolished these states’ governments and put them under military rule.Georgia was ruled by General John Pope.Pope was required to register all male voters – black and white. These voters would elect new representatives to form a new state government.
20Constitutional Convention of 1867 Georgia male voters elected delegates to the convention to create a new state constitution.Delegates were carpetbaggers (northerners who had moved south), scalawags (southerners who sided with the Republicans), and blacks.Accomplishments of the Convention:A new constitution ensuring civil rights for all citizens;Free public education for all children;Women were allowed to control their own property.Georgia had satisfied Congress, so General Pope and his troops left the state.
21African Americans in Politics The election of 1867 was the first time African Americans had voted.Several African Americans were elected to Georgia’s General Assembly.Rev. Henry McNeal Turner was one of the first black men elected in Georgia.The African Americans elected to the General Assembly were expelled in 1868.It was argued by whites that civil rights laws gave blacks the right to vote but not to be elected.
22Ku Klux KlanSecret organization – originally started as a social club for men returning from the war.Members hid behind robes and masks.The group terrorized blacks to keep them from voting.As a result, Congress passed “The Georgia Act” and sent troops back to Georgia.The act required Georgia to pass the 15th Amendment giving all males the right to vote.
23Economic Reconstruction Without slaves, landowners needed laborers to work their large farms.Two systems emerged: tenant farming and sharecropping.Cotton was Georgia’s most important crop.Continuous growing of tobacco and cotton ruined the soil on many farms.Railroads expanded across the state.Savannah and Brunswick became important shipping ports.Atlanta began its growth into an important business center.
24Tenant Farming and Sharecropping Landowner provides a house, land, equipment, animals, fertilizer and seeds.The landowner issued credit to the worker to buy medicine, food, clothing and other supplies.The landowner gets a share of the crop and crops to pay any debt owed.Sharecroppers rarely had any cash.Landowner provides house and land.Landowner received a set amount of cash or a portion of the crop at the end of the season.Tenant farmers usually made a small profit.
25The End of Reconstruction The African Americans who had been expelled from the General Assembly in 1868 were readmitted by the Georgia Supreme Court in 1870.The Assembly approved the 14th and 15th Amendments.Georgia was readmitted to the Union, again, ending Reconstruction.Click to return to the Table of Contents
26Section 3: Georgia’s Redemption Years ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow did Georgians work to improve their state after Reconstruction?This is an essential question for this section of the chapter.
27Section 3: Georgia’s Redemption Years What words do I need to know?redemptionwhite supremacyBourbon Triumvirateallytemperanceconvict lease system
28Section 3: Georgia’s Redemption Years What people do I need to know?Joseph E. BrownAlfred H. ColquittJohn B. GordonRebecca Latimer FeltonTom WatsonLeo Frank
29The Bourbon Triumvirate Democrats controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction.Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon.Their goals were:expand Georgia’s economy and ties with industries in the North;maintain the tradition of white supremacy.
30Decline of the Bourbon Triumvirate “Independent Democrats” criticized the Bourbons for not attending to the needs of the poor or improve education and working conditions in factories.Leaders William and Rebecca Felton worked to improve conditions for poor Georgians using newspapers to highlight problems in the state.The convict lease system “rented” prisoners to companies to use as workers. It took many years for the poor conditions the prisoners endured to be brought to light and changed.Click to return to the Table of Contents
31Section 4: The New South ESSENTIAL QUESTION What changes occurred to create the era of the “New South” in Georgia?This is an essential question for this section of the chapter.
32Section 4: The New South What words do I need to know? New South normal schoolsegregationGrangeFarmers’ Allianceco-op
33Section 4: The New South What people do I need to know? Henry Grady Joel Chandler HarrisSidney LanierCharles Henry Smith
34The New South EraChallengers to the Bourbon Triumvirate wanted Georgia to be more industrialized.Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor.Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming.Grady envisioned improved race relations in a “New South” which left its antebellum past behind.
35Education in the New South Era Funding to provide elementary education for all children in Georgia grew slowly fromTeachers were paid a little more than farm hands and had little or no training.Normal schools were started to train more teachers.The “school year” was only three months long which allowed children to work on farms or in factories.The state constitution of 1877 did not allow for school beyond 8th grade and segregated black and white students.
36The Arts of the New South Era Several Georgians gained fame for their work as writers:Joel Chandler Harris’ most famous work was Uncle Remus: His Sayings and Stories;Sidney Lanier was one of the best known poets of his time;Charles Henry Smith wrote satire for newspapers in Georgia.
37Agriculture in the New South Era Crop prices declined through the 1870s.The Grange and the Farmers’ Alliance started out as social groups but began to reorganize to put pressure on lawmakers to find ways to help farmers.Georgia created the first state to have a Department of Agriculture.Co-ops allowed farmers to work together to buy goods and equipment at a lower cost.Click to return to the Table of Contents