1. Best evidence from medical literature 2. Clinical expertise 3. Patient values 1 3 2
1. Formulate the question 2. Search for answers 3. Appraise the evidence 4. Apply the results 5. Assess the outcome
Two recent empirical studies Survey of over 200 librarians in the MLA Hospital Libraries Section Lack of time was the major barrier to hospital librarians’ involvement in EBM Most participants had taken formal EBM classes It was mostly nurses who initiated the request to conduct EBM literature searches Pappas, C. “Hospital Librarians’ Perceptions Related to Evidence-Based Health Care.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 96, no. 3 (July 2008): 235.
Survey of over 500 medical librarians in academic libraries, hospital libraries, and special libraries in the U. S. Medical librarians are playing various roles in supporting EBM practice While hospital librarians are the most active in providing EBM related services, such as providing EBM searches, academic medical librarians are especially active in teaching EBM Li, P., and Wu, L. “Exploring the Real World: Medical Librarians’ Involvement in Supporting Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Practice.” (2009). Available:. Accessed: July 19, 2010.
evidence clinical expertise patient “an approach to oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinically relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences” --American Dental Association (ADA), 2001
Knowledge gap: no empirical study in the literature examining the current roles of dental librarians in EBD education Librarian
To describe the current roles of dental librarians in EBD education including their perceptions of EBD and barriers to their involvement.
Target population: academic librarians who serve DDS programs in North America 58 institutions in the U.S. and 10 in Canada offer accredited DDS programs The directory from MLA Dental Section lists 57 dental librarians from 57 institutions in the U.S. and 10 in Canada Considering the small size of the population of interest, no sampling was conducted.
Email pre-notifications were sent out to alert participants and to verify their email addresses 65 dental librarians in 65 institutions were identified for survey distribution 55 in the U.S. and 10 in Canada
Questionnaire: 12 multiple-choice questions and one open-ended question Question categories basic work experience involvement in EBD education training on and perceptions of EBD Pretested by 3 librarians in North Carolina
Questionnaire was programmed and administered using Qualtrics survey software (Provo, UT) A unique survey URL was send to each potential participant
Qualitative data for multiple-choices questions was automatically generated by Qualtrics Content analysis of responses to the open- ended question and text entries for some of the multiple-choices questions was conducted manually
46 librarians responded 39 from the U.S. and 7 from Canada Response rate: 71% 79% of all the institutions in the U.S. and Canada offering the DDS program. Please take the EBD survey!
More than half (57%) have worked in their current libraries for 11 or more years The majority (91%) also serve as the primary contact librarians for other programs besides DDS programs
AnswerRespons e % The principles of EBD are integrated throughout an entire curriculum 2352% Individual classes1432% Other (please specify)1432% Standalone for credit course511% Standalone non-credit course12%
AnswerResponse% Teach students EBD literature searching skills 3297% Offer students individual or group consultations upon request 2988% Train dental faculty on EBD literature searching 1958% Purchase new materials to support the course 1855% Develop/maintain course-tailored instructional materials 1648% Design or help design course syllabus1442% Other (please describe)39%
AnswerResponse% Offer dental students consultations on EBD literature searching skills upon request 4089% Offer dental faculty consultations on EBD literature searching skills upon request 3987% Develop/maintain instructional materials2351% Offer workshops or short classes on EBD literature searching skills 2044% None511% Other (please specify)24%
More than half (52%) reported they assisted DDS students at least once or twice a year. Similarly, more than half (57%) reported they assisted dental faculty at least once or twice a year.
The majority (89%) felt competent in teaching EBD and providing EBD services Reason for incompetency: lack of hands-on experience in providing such services
AnswerResponse% Self-instruction4193% Conference programs2761% Workshops2557% In-service training2148% Medical Library Association (MLA) Continuing Education 1330% Other (please specify)614% Library school program12%
AnswerResponse% Not enough interest from the dental school or dental faculty 2964% Not enough time1636% Not enough training on EBD1124% Not enough subject knowledge1124% Not enough supporting staff818% Other (please describe)613% Not enough teaching skills511% Not enough support from library administrator in professional development 24%
Widespread appreciation and enthusiasm toward EBD “It needs to foster the development of more effective research to strengthen the evidence base and (we) must learn how to develop secondary sources built around how dentist(s) actually practice”
Dental librarians are playing multiple and diverse roles in EBD education and other EBD related services and feel competent in these roles Despite of the low level of interest from some of the dental schools/students, dental librarians in North America are enthusiastic towards supporting EBD and are also aware of the challenges Potential training needs on EBD and teaching skills
Results are based on self-reporting The listed items in the multiple-choice questions could potentially restrain participants’ thinking processes.
How librarians can successfully integrate EBD into the “crowded” dental curricula Viewpoints from administrators/faculty/students
Survey participants Kate McGraw, UNC-CH Health Sciences Library Joanne Marshall, UNC-CH School of Information and Library Science Connie Schardt, Duke University Medical Center Library