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Welcome to Mars 01. Thesis Goals This thesis will strive to answer three parallel questions. Social and Design Challenge: How can a small group of people.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Mars 01. Thesis Goals This thesis will strive to answer three parallel questions. Social and Design Challenge: How can a small group of people."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to Mars 01

2 Thesis Goals This thesis will strive to answer three parallel questions. Social and Design Challenge: How can a small group of people create a viable community in isolation? How can the habitable spaces be made sustainable and pleasant for humans living in extreme conditions? Engineering and Scientific Challenge: What are the engineering and structural imperatives, constraints, and opportunities in constructing habitable environments on Mars? Architecture and Engineering Synergy The two themes will be bound by the question of to what extent can architectural considerations have an impact on a construction with tight engineering constraints? First Permanent Settlement on Mars 02

3 Mars Radius= 3397km Day= 24h 40min Year= 687 days = 667 sols Earth Radius= 6378 km Day= 24h Year= days 23.5 o 25.2 o Mars – size and orbit 03

4 50 o C 0 o C -50 o C -100 o C 15 o C mean -30 o C mean 50 o C max 30 o C max Temperature MarsEarth Gravity 1G0.38G Mars – gravity and temperature 04

5 Solar wind Cosmic rays Solar flaresRadiation sourcesAtmospheric Pressure Mt. Everest= 320 mb Potosi, Bolivia= 620 mb Sea level = 1013 mb Elevation 8854 m 4000 m 0 m m m m Hellas Planitia= 10 mb Olympus Mons= 1 mb Mariana Trench Mars – elevation, atmospheric pressure and radiation 05

6 Establish a permanent base on Mars from which high-value scientific and engineering research can be performed for past and present life on Mars 2. basic science research to gain new knowledge about the solar system’s origin and history 3. applied science research on how to use Mars resources to augment life-sustaining systems Settlement mission 06

7 NASA’s ‘Mars Reference Mission’ - first three missions land at the same site and accumulate infrastructure for an outpost with 12 crew members. - Habitat is 4 vertical cylinders, 2 stories, 7.5 meters in diameter. - Power by two 160 kW nuclear power plants and photovoltaic arrays. - Greenhouses, a life support and in-situ recourse utilization machinery. - Three pressurized rovers with attachments to aid in construction. Construction of the permanent habitat begins with the arrival of the fourth crew. Setting 07

8 total population = 24 (12 on Mars and 12 more arriving every 2.7 years) 12 single + 6 couples 6 builders + 6 ‘alchemists’/engineers + 4 farmers + 7 scientists + 1 commander/administrator total habitable area = 1000 m m 2 greenhouses Builders – work on expanding the habitat. Mainly on EVA + some studio planning work Engineers – Establish and maintain life support. Repair the exterior chemical plant. Or bring farmers modules in garage for work. Develop new resources in vicinity of base. Farmers – Work mainly in plant preparation area. Occasionally go inside plant rated greenhouses. Share research space with the scientists. Scientists – Rotate on roving trips. Analyze samples in open lab space. Synthesize results in more private area or at private quarters. Commander – Leads and coordinates work at base. Commutates with ground control. Cooking and Cleaning – shared equally by all or rotated. First phase of development – 24 inhabitants 08

9 Arriving 1 st Landing builders 2 engineers 4 farmers 2 scientists 2 nd Landing builders 4 engineers 6 basic science 3 rd Landing – 12 4 engineers 4 farmers 4 basic science Total 4 builders 2 engineers 4 farmers 2 scientists 12 total 6 builders 6 engineers 4 farmers 7 basic science 1 commander 24 total 6 builders 10 engineers 8 farmers 11 basic science 1 commander 36 total Completed base 1 commander 4 communications - command and communications room 5 doctors/psychologists - labs 40 basic science - 2 three-person expeditions at all times - 34 work in labs at base 10 builders - work outside and small indoor planning room 24 farmers - greenhouses and supporting areas 12 engineers - fix machinery everywhere, monitor systems from central location 96 total settlement growth 09

10 Mesas in Candor Chasma Site 10

11 scaled Earth city texture -Venice, Italy -US capitol, Washington DC -North End, Boston MA -Suburb, Champaign IL -1 tick = 100m Site 11

12 masonry - manufacture bricks using regolith reinforced with fibers from used parachutes - using leaning arches and self supporting domes, one can construct a wide range of spaces using no scaffolding. inflatables with rigid support - low mass - advantage in weight to volume ratio compared to rigid shell structures. - relatively small deployment operations - can be tested on Earth - Need for Local Construction - Continuing to rely on habitats brought from Earth is an unsustainable strategy unless truly revolutionary advances in transportation technology are made. - Maximize use of Martian materials and simple, well understood, and tested building techniques. Construction Methods 12

13 pressurized inflatables vs. weight of regolith cover Rigid floor structure from which a bladder is inflated. Bladder provides all the resistance to internal pressure. - allow view - compartmentalized space -maximize the bladder as a pressure membrane - brick vaults: - hold weight of radiation protection - remain rigid in case of pressure loss - some thermal insulation - noise insulation - protects bladder during inflation Masonry is lined with non-structural liner and covered with regolith which balances the internal pressure. -allows larger open spaces - no view -1.5 g/cm 3 regolith density and 60kPa internal pressure – 10 m of regolith are required. -assuming igneous rocks – 6 m of cover. -Make sure that load lines for both load pressurized and unpressurized load case fit inside the masonry. Use inflatables for spaces that require access to the exterior – airlocks, greenhouse support, and private quarters. Use regolith covers vaults for larger spaces with no view – public areas, kitchen/dinning, labs, and baths. supporting the internal pressure 13

14 leaning arches – no scaffolding 14 Vaults

15 techniques from Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia – no scaffolding 15 Domes

16 Adopted for gravity environment from technology demonstrated by the Transhab proposal for ISS – rigid internal structure from which the bladder inflates 16 Inflatables

17 - airlocks, inflatables, greenhouses 17 Imported elements

18 Organization Diagrams – Linear City – Keeps the settlers alive 18 Linear City Derived from historical precedents by Arturo Soria and Le Corbusier. Efficiency in transportation, infrastructure, safety, and ease of expansion. Separately pressurized segments with inflatables or regolith supported masonry Keeps the settlers alive.

19 Organization Diagrams Utilities Air, water and power distribution in sub floor panels 19

20 Entrance 20 Organization Diagrams

21 21 Formal meeting space Organization Diagrams

22 22 Work spaces Organization Diagrams

23 23 Private quarters Organization Diagrams

24 24 Social spaces Organization Diagrams

25 25 Spaces arranged along the infrastructure organized through the relationship between the humans and the vegetation. Organization Diagrams

26 Diagrams – Vegetation – Makes the settlement a city vegetation as symbol A special place immediately between the main entrance and the formal meeting space. Plant five special trees on arrival – one for each continent. Symbolize hope in the future of the settlement. The trees will grow as the settlement expands. When people arrive from Earth the first thing they’ll see as they enter is the grove of trees. big, long lasting trees 26

27 Diagrams – plant spaces vegetation as life support Plant-rated greenhouses optimize atmosphere, light, structure and safety for specially designed plants. The farmers plant seedlings and harvest the crops from inside a pressurized area with the aid of robots. fast growing, engineered plants 27

28 plant as mediation of view Views of Mars are mediated by vegetation. Look at RED through GREEN Every private suite has a small garden area in front of its window. Terminate connector segments with small gardens and a window to Mars. small potted plants Diagrams – plant spaces 28

29 vegetation as green belt Where work areas need to provide a connection, use a row of vegetation to separate the circulation from the work spaces. dense plantings of bamboo Diagrams – plant spaces 29

30 vegetation as mediator of social life – version 1 The common The trees are at the center of the social space. The various social spaces are arranged around the periphery. Every space looks at the others through the vegetation. The trees provide much needed change in the underground space. The trees need the same protection as the humans. Both share the safest space under the hill. Use the bamboo for building material. Fruit trees for food. bamboo and other useful trees Diagrams – plant spaces 30

31 vegetation as mediator of social life – version 2 Clearing in the woods A Chinese garden Social space is surrounded and protected by trees. The edges of the space are hidden thus the limited size of the space is obscured. bamboo and other useful trees Diagrams – plant spaces 31

32 vegetation as mediator of social life – version 3 Pocket gardens providing focused diagonal views between social spaces. bamboo and other useful trees Diagrams – plant spaces 32

33 hybrid – green belt & pocket gardens bamboo and other useful trees Diagrams – plant spaces 33

34 Inflatable sits on a masonry foundation, inside a masonry dome. The bladder and frame resist the interior air pressure. The masonry: - holds one meter of regolith for radiation protection. - maintains overall stability if pressure is lost to one unit. - protects bladder from meteorites - protects bladder from abrasion by dust storms. Inflatables 34

35 Inflatables 35 Frames at ends support windows and doors. Belts and transverse cables force the bladder into a roughly prismatic form. Beams resist gravity live loads

36 Inflatables 36 Air ducts and power lines run in the floors and sit above the transverse cables. Tray in front the windows can allow each resident to grow some personal plants.

37 Inflatables 37 Floor panels span between the beam and cantilever out to the bladder. Originally they could be made of imparted material, but eventually out of locally grown bamboo. Vertical partitions can also made in modules that can attach the to superstructure.

38 Inflatables 38 Inflated bladders.

39 Inflatables 39 The unit inside the masonry vault.

40 Inflatables 40 The frame spans between two masonry foundations, allowing the pressure on the bottom to be resisted by a bladder as well.

41 Inflatables 41 Ducts connect to the main utility lines between the floors.

42 Inflatables 42 Double units for a couple can be made by connecting quarters of the module vertically or horizontally.

43 Social Diagrams 43 Spaces for an INDIVIDUAL

44 Social Diagrams 44 Spaces for TWO PEOPLE

45 Social Diagrams 45 Spaces for INFORMAL SUBGROUPS

46 Social Diagrams 46 Spaces for FORMAL SUBGROUPS

47 Social Diagrams 47 Spaces for the WHOLE COMMUNITY

48 Social Diagrams 48 Gradient of social spaces

49 first phase – 24 residents 49 Original base Airlocks and life-support Greenhouses Private quarters Public spaces Work spaces

50 full base with 96 residents - expansion in linear bands 50 Original base Airlocks and life-support Greenhouses Private quarters Public spaces Work spaces

51 full base with 96 residents - expansion in linear bands 51 Original base Airlocks and life-support Greenhouses Private quarters Public spaces Work spaces

52 Construction estimates for first phase 52 Excavation: -Total excavation m o slope -30 meters deep -45 meters long Drilling and blasting – 4 man-weeks Setting up slusher – 4 man-weeks Slusher excavation – 10 man-weeks Backhoe excavation – 2 man-weeks Total Excavation = 20 man-weeks Masonry Construction: -8 vaults3.25m radius x 10 m long -6 vaults2m radius x 8 m long -3 vaults1.5m radius x 13 m long -3 vaults1.25m radius x 8 m long -28 small domes2m radius -1 large dome 5m radius On Earth each of the small domes and vaults can be built in 2 days. Assume on Mars it takes 3 times as long. Including arches and walls each unit takes 2 weeks or 4 man-weeks. The large vaults are twice as big, so they’ll take 8 man-weeks each. The large dome will require special construction so assume 50 man-weeks. Total masonry work = 298 man-weeks Brick manufacturing: m 3 - Use material from excavation of hill - Use waste heat from the nuclear reactors to operate kiln. -2 kilns, 1.5 m 3 capacity each. - Firing time 8 hours – 2 batches/day - 6 m 3 of brick/day days to make the brick - Automated pressing and firing - Only human intervention is for maintenance of equipment Total brick manufacturing = 20 man- weeks

53 Construction estimates for first phase 53 Construction time: 1. Fragmentation –4 man-weeks 2. Excavation –16 man-weeks 3. Transport -20 man-weeks 4. Processing –20 man-weeks 5. Placement (masonry) -298 man-weeks 6. Placement (cover) - 20 man-weeks Total 378 man-weeks Total available for construction (2.7 years, 4 builders) = 560 man-weeks 182 man-weeks – for safety and helping the engineers with installation of inflatables, airlocks, doors, windows, skylights

54 Construction equipment 54 Slusher 0.5 m 3 bucket – 500kg 11500/0.5 = cycles assume 1 cycle = 2 minutes excavation phase = 32 days 8 days setting up the system TOTAL EXCAVATION = 40 days

55 Construction equipment 55 Front end loader - excavating, loading, and transporting material - good mobility 1 m 3 bucket – 6000kg cycle time 30 sec - 2 m 3 min Hydraulic excavator (backhoe) - excavation, some fragmentation - high precision, high force - complex hydraulic system 0.4 m 3 bucket – 10,000kg cycle time 15 sec – 1.6 m 3 min

56 Construction equipment 56 Trucks - moving material - can be a pulled by a rover Rover mounted drill - drilling holes for explosives or anchors - drilling rate 6 m/hour Construction equipment mass Slusher - 2,000kg Front end loader - 6,000kg Back Hoe -10,000kg Truck – 5,000kg Ballistic transporter – 5,000kg Drill - 2,000kg Crane - 5,000kg TOTAL 35,000kg

57 Mass estimate fro complete base 57 Humans Construction equipment Greenhouses 12 Nuclear Reactors Life support machinery Science equipment Initial food cache 2 Very long range rovers 4 pressurized rovers 125 Inflatable modules Skylights and mirrors Subtotal 20% Safety TOTAL Per person 9 tons (90kg/person) 35 tons (sea above) 400 tons (from Obayashi Corporation estimate) 128 tons (SP-100 reactor = 10.7 tons) 32 tons (extrapolation from Mars Reference Mission) 30 tons (extrapolation from Mars Reference Mission) 200 tons (20kg/person/day x 12 people x 2.7 years) 50 tons 20 tons 625 tons (5 tons per module) 100 tons 1629 tons 306 tons 1935 tons 19 tons/person Obayashi corporation base design for 150 people = 4002 tons, 26tons/person

58 Welcome to Mars 58

59 Extra Slides 00

60 masonry openings 00

61 Construction operation units 1. Fragmentation – explosives, drill 2. Excavation – slusher, backhoe, front end loader 3. Transport - front end loader, truck, ballistic transporter 4. Processing – kiln, chemical plants 5. Placement – robots, humans, ballistic transporter Construction estimates for first phase 00

62 bamboo 0 - full height in 3 months - maturity in 3 years - lifespan 20 years - leaves always green - very strong in tension - strong in compression - poles, beams, flooring, siding, scaffolding, furniture, musical instruments, and other tools

63 Excavation - Excavation will be necessary in any case for cover, and extraction of resources. - Lower precision requirement - Building the cover provides accuracy and safety - Can be done in a hill with loose soil - fragment rock and permafrost using methane explosives Tunneling - Relies on strength of rocks above - Need a hill with solid rock excavation vs. tunneling 58

64 miniature wheat on portable racks water purification external chemical plants Series of nodes. - each node has complete capability of cycling water, air and nutrients - minimizes distance to nearest unit – smaller pipes - redundancy - if one unit fails demand can be covered by adjacent units life support 36

65 light transmittance into underground spaces 60 Himawari Sunlighting System -transmits only visible light -XF-160S – 1.4 m 2 area – 600 kg - assume same area required as area of tree growing space. - need 73 m 2 of collection surface 52 units = kg (current design not optimized for Mars)

66 – vertical chimney opening with reinforcing that brings the tensile forces down to the dome might also be possible Greek baths at Piraeus 61

67 light transmittance into underground spaces 61 Heliobus Light Pipes System

68 – Catalan vaults – made famous in the United States by Rafael Guastavino in the late 19th century. - requires fast setting mortar so might not be available at first Thin tiles 08

69 Linear City by Arturo Soria and Le Corbusier bands of development between centralized nodes 1 housing band with small and large buildings 2 industrial band 3 transportation band Linear City 19

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