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1 © 2012 InfoComm International Essentials of AV Technology AV System Infrastructure
2 © 2012 InfoComm International Part One Control Systems
3 © 2012 InfoComm International Introduction to Control Systems 1.Introduction to Control Systems 2.Types of Control Signals 3.Net-Centric Control
4 © 2012 InfoComm International Control Systems Control System: Operation of complex AV systems without technical knowledge
5 © 2012 InfoComm International Control System Functions Event driven system is reactive Functions are any individual action Common functions oRaising/lowering projection screen oPowering devices oSetting volume levels
6 © 2012 InfoComm International Control System Componets The "Brains" of the System Interfaces with devices to execute functions Runs custom programs
7 © 2012 InfoComm International Control System Interfaces A way for the user to interact with a control system Touchpanels Multi-button panels Touch-sensitive screens
8 © 2012 InfoComm International Control Signals Signals communicate commands Unidirectional Bidirectional
9 © 2012 InfoComm International Contact Closure Typically an "on" or "off" switch.
10 © 2012 InfoComm International Variable Voltage Control Voltage ramp generator Camera pan/tilt head
11 © 2012 InfoComm International Infrared: Optical and Wired Optical Infrared: Line of sight Wired: serial communication
12 © 2012 InfoComm International Radio Frequency User interface Control links Limit 100 ft (30 m)
13 © 2012 InfoComm International RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485 RS-232: Unbalanced circuit, easily affected by noise; DB-9 or DB-25 connector. RS-422: Balanced circuit; four-wire connection. RS-485: Balanced circuit; supports 32 transmitting/receiving devices.
14 © 2012 InfoComm International Ethernet Allows for communications between components, applications, and the internet Enterprise-wide potential
15 © 2012 InfoComm International Termination Types RJ45 (8P8C) DB-9 Captive screw
16 © 2012 InfoComm International Control Systems on Networks Ethernet network capabilities Remote operation of AV control system Asset management User support possibilities Planning
17 © 2012 InfoComm International Part Two Electrical Systems
18 © 2012 InfoComm International Electrical Systems Introduction 1.Electrical Systems Introduction 2.Electrical Systems 3.Electrical System Commonalities 4.Voltage 5.Current 6.Current: DC Power 7.Current: AC Power 8.Resistance and Impedance 9.Power 10.Ohm's Law
19 © 2012 InfoComm International Electrical Systems Planning and installation Codes and regulations Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
20 © 2012 InfoComm International Electrical System Commonalities Different countries have different electrical systems. There is commonality in: The basics of electrical power and distribution The characteristics of electricity How an electrical circuit works How electricity is managed in an AV system Electrical safety issues
21 © 2012 InfoComm International Voltage Measure of electrical pressure Potential force Difference of potential Symbol: V (or E)
22 © 2012 InfoComm International Current Flow of electrons Symbol: I (or A) Measured in amperes Direct Current Alternating Current
23 © 2012 InfoComm International Current: DC Power Facts about DC power: Charge stays at a constant flow does not reverse direction Can be positive or negative Computer signals, batteries, and power supplies usually use DC power.
24 © 2012 InfoComm International Current: AC Power Voltage USA: 120 volts Europe: 230 volts Signal alternates Current travels in cycles Frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cps Current returns to source
25 © 2012 InfoComm International Resistance and Impedance Resistance (R): Opposition to the flow of electrons oMeasured in ohms (Ω) oResistance in a conductor Impedance (Z): Resistance and reactance in an AC circuit oMeasured in ohms (Ω)
26 © 2012 InfoComm International Power Power is the rate at which work is done. Symbol: P Measured in watts (W) One watt expended when one amp of direct current flows through a resistance of one ohm
27 © 2012 InfoComm International Ohm's Law Current proportional to voltage oVoltage increase = current increase if resistance stays the same Current and resistance inversely proportional oResistance increase = current decrease if voltage stays the same
28 © 2012 InfoComm International Ohm’s Law Formula I=V/R (Current = Voltage/Resistance) V=I*R R=V/I P=IV Current - amount flowing though drain Resistance – pipe size
29 © 2012 InfoComm International Electrical Circuits Introduction 1.Electrical Circuits 2.Series and Parallel Circuits 3.Grounding 4.Electrical Power and Distribution 5.Electrical Safety 6.Electrical Installation Safety 7.Electrical Systems Summary
30 © 2012 InfoComm International Electrical Circuits Continuous (closed) circuit Source: supplier of information (power) Load: receiver of information (reactive component)
31 © 2012 InfoComm International Series and Parallel Circuits Source to Circuit to Source All current seeks return to source Series: All current through circuit, voltage divided across load Parallel: Voltage remains same, current divides
32 © 2012 InfoComm International Grounding Limits human exposure to electricity System ground oConnects AC circuit to ground Equipment ground oConnects metal parts to infrastructure ground oNormally not current-carrying
33 © 2012 InfoComm International Electrical Power and Distribution Main distribution panel Subpanels Branch circuits Isolated ground system Individual branch circuits
34 © 2012 InfoComm International Electrical Safety Code Standards and AHJ Installed systems Environment Fill allowances Rack grounding Current protection Safe access
35 © 2012 InfoComm International Electrical Installation Safety Temporary Installations Test Balance loads Circuit breakers Wire gauge and length Secure cabling
36 © 2012 InfoComm International Part Three Signal Management Systems
37 © 2012 InfoComm International Signal Mangement Systems 1.Signal Management Systems 2.Wire 3.Cable 4.Conductors 5.Insulation 6.Shield 7.Jackets 8.Cable Types 9.Connectors 10.Connector Guide 11.Signal Integrity 12.Distance Limits 13.Switchers 14.Distribution Amplifiers 15.Rack Building 16.Signal Management Summary
38 © 2012 InfoComm International Wire Wire is a single conductor.
39 © 2012 InfoComm International Cable Cable is Multiple insulated conductors
40 © 2012 InfoComm International Conductors Material that allows current and voltage to pass Classification Size Construction Conductive material
41 © 2012 InfoComm International Insulation Insulation protects equipment and people
42 © 2012 InfoComm International Shield Shields Protect conductors from interference
43 © 2012 InfoComm International Jackets Jackets provide physical protection for cable.
44 © 2012 InfoComm International Cable Types Coax Twisted pair Fiber optic
45 © 2012 InfoComm International Connectors XLR inch, 1/8 inch phone RCA F type DB9 RJ45 (8P8C) BNC Speakon Captive Screw DVI HD15 DisplayPort HDMI
46 © 2012 InfoComm International Signal Integrity Preserve signal quality Interference and signal integrity EMI Lighting Transformers Many more
47 © 2012 InfoComm International Distance Limits Affects signal strength Signal level Signal bandwidth Cable loss characteristics A cross section of a cable shows signal loss as distance increases.
48 © 2012 InfoComm International Switchers Selects signal(s) from multiple sources to send to a destination
49 © 2012 InfoComm International Distribution Amplifiers Sends a single signal source to multiple destinations maintains signal integrity
50 © 2012 InfoComm International Rack Building Rack: Protects and organizes electronic equipment Outside width: 21 – 25 inches (530 – 630 mm) Vertical Mounting Height: 1 foot (300 mm) – 7 feet (2130 mm) Rack unit = 1.75 inches (44 mm)
51 © 2012 InfoComm International Part Four Radio Waves
52 © 2012 InfoComm International Radio Waves Introduction 1.Radio Waves Introduction 2.Radio Waves 3.Transmitting and Receiving RF 4.Allocations of Radio Frequencies 5.The Importance of Antennas 6.Diversity Systems 7.RF Video Systems 8.Broadcast Transmission 9.Radio Waves Summary
53 © 2012 InfoComm International Radio Waves Transmitting and Receiving RF Frequency Allocation Importance of Antennas Diversity Systems RF Video Systems Broadcast Transmission
54 © 2012 InfoComm International Allocations of Radio Frequencies Modulation RF Carrier Demodulation VHF (Very High Frequency) 30MHz -300MHz UHF (Ultra High Frequency) 300MHz - 3GHz
55 © 2012 InfoComm International The Importance of Antennas Antennas o Lengths o Ground Plane o Orientation
56 © 2012 InfoComm International Diversity Systems Diversity Systems o Direct and reflected energy o Shifts between antennas o Dynamic comparison
57 © 2012 InfoComm International RF Video Systems MATV and CATV Modulators and Demodulators Splitters Distribution amplifiers Combiners
58 © 2012 InfoComm International Broadcast Transmission Analog Standards o PAL, NTSC, SECAM Digital Standards o ATSC o DVB-T o ISDB-T Bandwidth o 6MHz for analog and digital
59 © 2012 InfoComm International Radio Waves Summary Transmitting and Receiving RF Frequency Allocation Importance of Antennas Diversity Systems RF Video Systems Broadcast Transmission
60 © 2012 InfoComm International Essentials of AV Technology Customer Service and Future Trends
61 © 2012 InfoComm International Customer Service What is customer service, and why is it important? What makes customer service “good”? What aspects of customer service do you need to work on?
62 © 2012 InfoComm International Future Trends What future trends in AV do you see coming? Which will be the most important? Why?
63 © 2012 InfoComm International Course Completion- Time for a Showdown
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