Presentation on theme: "Obesity and diets Mariana Lopez Professor Ochoa 8th pd May 21, 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Obesity and diets Mariana Lopez Professor Ochoa 8th pd May 21, 2014
The Reality Is..... One in five children and adolescents are either overweight or obese. From 1985 to 1995 the number of overweight 7–15 year olds almost doubled. The numbers of obese children has more than tripled. About 80 per cent of obese adolescents will become obese adults. At the current rate, it is predicted that 65 per cent of young Australians will be overweight or obese by 2020
What is obesity? It is defined as excess of adipose tissue that imparts Health risk,obesity means too much of body fat. It is not.The same as being overweight. A body weight of 20percent excess over ideal weight for age, sex &height obesity is an illness where health & hence lifestyle is adversely affected by excess body fat. Most widely used method to evaluate obesity is BMI. Which is equal to weight in kg by height in square meter, for a healthy individual BMI value ranges from BMI greater than 40 individuals are said to be overweight or morbidly obese
Etiology Etiology is complex and incompletely understood involved by many other factors. Three mechanism are expressed, the efferent system, which generates signals from various sites. Its main component are leptin, insulin (pancreas), stomach, peptide Y (ileum and colon). Leptin on as a meal initiating signals. Peptide Y, which is released postprandial by endocrine cells in the ileum and colon, it is a satiety signals. The hypothalamus processing system known as the central melanocortin system, which integrates different type of afferent signals and generates efferent signals. The efferent system that carries the signals generated in the hypothalamus, which controls food intake and energy expenditure.
Pathophysiology The pathogenesis of obesity is far more complex than the simple paradigm of an imbalance between energy intake and energy output. Although this concept allows easy conceptualization of the various mechanisms involved in the development of obesity, obesity is far more than the mere result of too much eating and/or too little exercise. However, the prevalence of inactivity in developed countries is considerable and relevant. In the United States, only approximately 22% of adults and 25% of adolescents report notable regular physical activity. Approximately 25% of adults in the United States report no remarkable physical activity during leisure, while approximately 14% of adolescents have similar reports of inactivity.
How Does Obesity Affect Us? Physical Effects High Blood Pressure Sleep Apnea Diabetes Respiratory Problems Heart Disease Cancer Joint Problems Metabolic Syndrome Osteoarthritis Psychosocial effects Discrimination Bias Isolation Torment Lower Income
How to know you are overweight? Obesity ranges are determined by using your weight and height to calculate a number called your “Body Mass Index” or BMI. For most people, BMI is a good indicator of their amount of body fat. An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight, and an adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
Obesity prevention Limiting unhealthy foods (refined grains and sweets, potatoes, red meat, processed meat) and sugary drinks. Increasing physical activity Limiting television time, screen time, and other “sit time” Improving sleep Reducing stress
Diet Numerous diet or nutrition plans exist to aid in weight loss should low calorie intake. Surgery remains the most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity. Its related to mortality, this intervention is reserved for those with BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 or 35 kg/m2.60−62. Surgical procedures either reduce the stomach volume and/or reduce the absorptive surface of the alimentary tract, resulting in some degree of malabsorption. Currently, the three major types of procedures are: stapled gastroplasty, adjustable gastric banding, and conventional Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A combined intervention of behavior therapy, dietary changes and increased physical activity should be maintained for at least 6 months before considering pharmacotherapy
Obesity Diet and Exercise Physical activity contributes to weight loss, especially when combined with a calorie reduction. Physical activity is important in preventing overweight and obesity and in maintaining weight that is lost. In addition to weight control, physical activity helps. Prevent heart disease, control cholesterol levels and diabetes. To slow bone loss associated with advancing age, lower the risk of certain cancers, reduce anxiety and depression.
Prevention for Your Family & You Plan healthy meals that you must cook. Eat out less often Help with grocery shopping for natural, unprocessed foods. Turn off the TV-play games, go for a walk. Eat 5 or more servings of fruits & vegetables a day. Drink fewer calories, limit fast food intake, and don’t eat in front of the TV. Be active in your free time take the stairs, walk, run, ride your bike when you can.