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© Copyright 2007 Welcome Title Welcome to the International Potash Institute K gallery: Effect of Potassium (K) fertilization on growth, yields, appearance,

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright 2007 Welcome Title Welcome to the International Potash Institute K gallery: Effect of Potassium (K) fertilization on growth, yields, appearance,"— Presentation transcript:

1 © Copyright 2007 Welcome Title Welcome to the International Potash Institute K gallery: Effect of Potassium (K) fertilization on growth, yields, appearance, quality, stress tolerance of plants and nutritional symptoms Policy We encourage you to use our pictures on this site. Recommended citation: International Potash Institute (IPI), Horgen, Switzerland. Updates and contributions This section is frequently updated. Last update: July Contribution of pictures is welcomed. Please send your pictures to the listed below. Contact usInternational Potash Institute Baumgärtlistrasse 17 P.O. Box 569 CH-8810 Horgen, Switzerland Tel Fax

2 Maize (Zea mays L.) Maize grain from China

3 Effect of potassium (K) application on maize Effect of K application on yield of maize in a Pea-Sunflower-Maize intensive cropping system. IPI-Punjab Agricultural University. Farmer's field at Majari dist., Nawanshehar, Source: IPI Coordination India.

4 Effect of potassium (K) on grain filling and ear size of maize Application of K affected the grain filling and ear size. The picture was taken at IPI-SFI project in Jiajiang county, Chengdu, China, Source: IPI Coordination China.

5 Effect of potassium (K) on the size of cobs 120 kg ha -1 of K 2 OControl Application of K affected the size of maize cobs. The picture was taken at IPI- EMBRAPA project in Luis Eduardo Magalhaes, Bahia, Brazil, Partners: EMBRAPA and local No-till NGO. Source: IPI Coordination L. America.

6 Effect of potassium (K) and phosphorous (P) on the size and grain filling of maize cobs Application of K (left) and P (center) increased the cob’s grain filling and size. PAU-IPI project at KVK Bahosal, Punjab, India, Source: Dr. M.S. Brar and IPI Coordination India.

7 Effect of potassium (K) on resistance of maize leaves to water stress Application of K decreased the signs of wilting leaves. IPI-SFI Chengdu project; Jiajiang, Sichuan, China, Source: IPI Coordination China.

8 Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Hybrid rice from China

9 Effect of potassium (K) on rice plants Effect of N, P and K on rice plant size. IPI-SWRI project in the Nile Delta, Egypt Source: IPI Coordination WANA.

10 Effect of potassium (K) on rice panicle size of rice Effect of K on panicle size of rice. IPI-PRII-PAU project in Gurdaspur, Punjab, India Source: IPI Coordination India. +K -K

11 Effect of potassium (K) on panicle size of rice Effect of K on panicle size of rice. IPI-ISSAS project in Changsha, China Source: IPI Coordination China. +K -K +K-K

12 Effect of potassium (K) on panicle size and number of grains per panicle of rice +K-K Effect of K on panicle size and the number of grains per panicle (in the photo, the grain shown is from three panicles). IPI-ISSAS project in Changsha, China Source: IPI Coordination China.

13 Typical deficiency symptoms of potassium (K) in rice Typical potassium deficiency symptoms on the leaves of rice plants (variety IR 26). Note the rusty-brown spots, yellowing of the leaf tips and marginal necrosis. Source: Bulletin 3, 1993, IPI, Horgen, Switzerland.

14 Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Wheat field in Argentina

15 Effect of potassium (K) on ear size of wheat Effect of K on ear size of wheat. Experiment at farmers’ fields. Grain yield was double with K application of 120 kg K 2 O/ha. IPI project in Bangladesh Source: IPI Coordination India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. -K +K

16 Effect of potassium (K) on grain size of wheat -K+K Potassium had an effect on size and quality of wheat grain. The project was conducted by the Potash Research Institute of India (PRII) at farmer's field in the village of Hasanpur, Dist. Gurgaon (Haryana State). Soil is loamy sand having available K (NH 4 OAc extractable) about 30 mg/kg. The treatments were N 120 P 60 and N 120 P 60 K Source: PRII, India.

17 Effect of S, Cl and K on ear size of wheat Effect of sulfur (S), chloride (Cl) and potassium (K) on the size of wheat ears. Experiment in Arrecifes, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Source: IPI-INTA Pergamino, IPI Coordination Latin America.

18 Typical deficiency symptoms of potassium (K) in wheat Typical potassium deficiency symptoms on the leaves of wheat plants IPI-PRII project in Jurgaon, Haryana, India. Source: IPI Coordination India.

19 Soybean (Glycine max ) High yielding soybean variety, Indore, India

20 Effect of potassium (K) on soybean grain size Effect of potassium on the number and size of soybean grain. IPI-NCSR project in the 'soybean belt' of India, Simrol, Indore, Madhya Pradesh Source: IPI Coordination India. Full report on

21 Effect of potassium (K) on pest infestation in soybean Effect of K on pest infestation in soybean. The experiment conducted at farmers' fields showed how K affected plant's resistance to pest infestation. Photo was taken at IPI-PRII-Oilfed project in Sehore, Madhya Pradesh, India. Source: IPI Coordination India. Full report on -K+K

22 Typical potassium (K) deficiency symptoms in soybean Control = 0 K Different doses of K Typical deficiency symptoms in K deficient soybean plants. Photo was taken at IPI- EMBRAPA project in Montividiu, Goias, Brazil, Source: IPI Coordination Latin America.

23 Peanut (Arachis hypogea ) Peanut plant grown on red soil in Sichuan, China

24 Effect of potassium (K) on growth of groundnut Groundnut grown on poor in potassium red soil responded well to K application. The picture was taken at the IPI-SFI Chengdu project, Sichuan, China, Source: IPI Coordination China.

25 Effect of potassium (K) on growth of groundnut The degree of chlorosis of groundnut plants grown on calcareous soil was much less in the +K plots. IPI-PRII-GAU project in Junagadh, Gujarat, India Source: IPI Coordination India. -K+K

26 Sugarcane (Saccharum L.) Sugarcane in Brazil

27 Effect of potassium (K) on occurrence of disease in sugarcane -K+K Effect of K application on red rot disease in sugarcane (Colletotrichum falcatum ). Meerut, Utar Pradesh, India Source: DSW.

28 Effect of N & K fertigation on the growth of sugarcane Fertigated sugarcane demonstration plot at the field of Shri Babasaheb at Kande village, District Sangli (Maharashtra, India) Source: VSI-IPI project ( ).

29 Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Potato exhibition in Belarus

30 Effect of potassium (K) on the number and size of potato tubers (4 plants) PRODUCE OF 4 PLANTS K 75 N 160 +P 100 +K 75 K 0 N 160 +P 100 +K 0 K 150 N 160 +P 100 +K 150 Effect of potassium on number and size of potato tubers. IPI–PRII–CPRI project, Jalandhar, Punjab, Source: IPI Coordination India. Full report on -K+K

31 Effect of potassium (K) on the number and size of potato tubers (3 plants) Effect of potassium on number and size of potato tubers. IPI project in Chhattisgarh, India, Source: IPI Coordination India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. -K+K

32 Effect of potassium (K) on infestation by Late blight (Phytophtora infestans ) Effect of potassium on occurrence of Late Blight disease (Phytophtora infestans ). IPI– PRII–CPRI project, Jalandhar, Punjab, Source: IPI Coordination India.

33 Mild potassium (K) deficiency symptoms in potato leaves +K -K Typical symptoms of K deficiency in potato leaves. IPI–PRII–CPRI project, Jalandhar, Punjab, Source: IPI Coordination India.

34 Severe potassium (K) deficiency symptoms in potato leaves Typical symptoms of K deficiency in potato leaves. IPI–PRII–CPRI project, Jalandhar, Punjab, Source: IPI Coordination India. +K -K

35 Other crops

36 Effect of balanced fertilization (NPK) on yield and quality of onion Effect of potassium on onion size and yield. IPI–MPKV project, Rahuri, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India Source: A.R. Dhage et al. IPI Coordination India. More on

37 Effect of potassium (K) on yield and quality of onion Effect of potassium on onion size and yield. IPI–MPKV project, Rahuri, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India Source: A.R. Dhage et al. and IPI Coordination India. More on

38 Effect of potassium (K) on onion size N 100 P 80 N 100 P 80 K 90 Potassium effect on size of onion. IPI demonstration experiments Raipur District, Chattisgarh, India, Source: IPI Coordination East India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

39 Potassium effect on Rabi linseed (flax). IPI-CSAU project on K requirement of major oil seeds and pulses in the Central plain zone, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, Source: D.D. Tiwari et al. and IPI Coordination India. Effect of potassium (K) on linseed (flax) yield

40 Effect of potassium (K) on head size and number of seeds in sunflower Effect of K on sunflower heads / yields. The IPI-PAU Project is conducted at KVK, a farmers’ training center, Directorate of Extension Education of the PAU. This project has a specific extension character and includes demonstration plots, farmers’ field days and literature in local language (Punjabi) Source: IPI Coordination India.

41 Effect of potassium (K) on yield of pearl millet -K +K Fertilizing pearl millet (bajra) with potash in Bawal, Haryana, India. IPI-HAU experiment at CCS HAU, Regional Research Station, Bawal Source: IPI Coordination India. See more on

42 Effect of potassium (K) on citrus fruit size Long term fertilization experiment in citrus (5 years) showed significant difference in fruit size with K application. Picture was taken at the Volcani Center, Israel.

43 Effect of potassium (K) on papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit size and yield N-P2O5-K2O = Potassium effect on size of papaya fruit. IPI-TNAU project in Vadipatti, Theni Dist., Tamil Nadu, India, The +K treatment received N(750)P 2 O 5 (750)K 2 O(750). Source: IPI Coordination India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. See more on -K +K

44 Effect of potassium (K) on papaya fruit size N 750 P K K K 1125 Potassium effect on size of papaya fruit. IPI-TNAU project in Vadipatti, Theni Dist., Tamil Nadu, India, Source: IPI Coordination India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. See more on

45 Effect of potassium (K) on eggplant size Size of eggplants (and yield) increased with application of potassium. The picture was taken at a demonstration experiment in farmers’ field Bachhera village, Raipur District, Chhattisgarh, India. Season Treatments are: T1: N 150 P 100 (yield 263 q/ha); T2: N 150 P 100 K 50 (yield 327 q/ha) and T3: N 150 P 100 K 75 (yield 493 q/ha). Source: IPI Coordination East India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. N 150 P 100 N 150 P 100 K 50 N 150 P 100 K 75

46 Effect of potassium (K) on size and number of peas Potassium affected the number and size of pea grains. Potash experiment in Punjab; Village of Nangal Khurad, Hoshiarpur Dist., Punjab, India. The IPI-PAU Project is conducted at KVK, a farmers’ training center, Directorate of Extension Education of the PAU. This project has a specific extension character and includes demonstration plots, farmers’ field days and literature in local language (Punjabi) Source: IPI Coordination India. -K+K

47 Effect of potassium (K) on cracking of watermelon -K+K Potassium application reduced cracking of watermelons. IPI-SFI Chengdu project, The experiment was conducted at farmers’ fields in Pengshan, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Source: IPI Coordination China.

48 Turmeric (Curcuma longa ) Potassium application increased size of turmeric rhizome. IPI-Annamalai University project, The experiment was conducted in pots at a farmer’s field at Arachalur, Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India. Source: IPI Coordination India. Full report on

49 Turmeric (Curcuma longa ) Potassium application increased size of turmeric rhizome. IPI-BARI joint project, Spice Research Center, Bogra, Bangladesh The experiment was conducted in the field. Source: IPI Coordination E. India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. More at

50 Ginger (Zingiber officinale ) Potassium application increased size of ginger rhizome. IPI-BARI project on ginger at the Spice Research Center, Bogra, Bangladesh Source: IPI Coordination E. India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. More at

51 Mild K deficiency Medium K deficiency Severe K deficiency Deficiency symptoms of K in Banana leaves. Various degrees of K deficiency in Banana leaves are shown as ‘Mild’ (left), ‘Medium’ (middle) and ‘Severe’ (right). The picture was taken at IPI experiment in Tamil Nadu, India Source: IPI Coordination India. Various degrees of potassium (K) deficiency in Banana leaves

52 Typical deficiency symptoms of potassium (K) in oilseed rape Typical potassium deficiency symptoms in oilseed rape leaves. Source: Bulletin 16, 2003, IPI, Horgen, Switzerland. Courtesy of K+S KALI.

53 Typical deficiency symptoms of potassium (K) in sugar beet Typical potassium deficiency symptoms in sugar beet leaves. Source: Bulletin 15, 1996, IPI, Horgen, Switzerland. Courtesy of K+S KALI.

54 Deficiency symptoms of potassium (K) in oil palm The most common symptom of potassium deficiency is “confluent orange spotting”, starting with small rectangular, pale green spots on pinnae of older leaves. These spots later turn orange and in severe cases the center of the spots and the tips and margins of affected pinnae will become necrotic. Source: Bulletin 12, 1991, IPI, Horgen, Switzerland.

55 Deficiency symptoms of potassium (K) in sunflower K deficient plants have restricted growth with a rosette-like arrangements of the younger leaves. Later the leaves develop dark brown necrotic patches. K deficient leaves loose their color from tip and margins; later on they turn brown and finally die (necrosis). Source: Bulletin 10, 1988, IPI, Horgen, Switzerland.

56 Deficiency symptoms of potassium (K) in cauliflower Deficiency symptom of K in cauliflower leaves. The IPI-SFI Chengdu project was conducted at farmers' fields near Chengdu. K+ and K omission plots received optimal (and same) N and P application Source: IPI Coordination China.

57 Deficiency symptoms of potassium (K) in vine Deficiency symptom of K in grape vine leaves. Source: IPI Coordination China.

58 Thank you


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