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**How and why do objects move**

SPH4U: Lecture 1 Dynamics How and why do objects move

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**Describing motion – so far… (from last Year)**

Linear motion with const acceleration:

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**What about higher order rates of change?**

If linear motion and circular motion are uniquely determined by acceleration, do we ever need higher derivatives? Certainly acceleration changes, so does that mean we need to find some “action” that controls the third or higher time derivatives of position? NO. Known as the “Jerk”

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Dynamics Isaac Newton ( ) published Principia Mathematica in In this work, he proposed three “laws” of motion: principia Law 1: An object subject to no external forces is at rest or moves with a constant velocity if viewed from an inertial reference frame. Law 2: For any object, FNET = F = ma (not mv!) Law 3: Forces occur in pairs: FA ,B = - FB ,A (For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.) These are the postulates of mechanics They are experimentally, not mathematically, justified. They work, and DEFINE what we mean by “forces”.

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Newton’s First Law An object subject to no external forces is at rest or moves with a constant velocity if viewed from an inertial reference frame. If no forces act, there is no acceleration. The following statements can be thought of as the definition of inertial reference frames. An IRF is a reference frame that is not accelerating (or rotating) with respect to the “fixed stars”. If one IRF exists, infinitely many exist since they are related by any arbitrary constant velocity vector! If you can eliminate all forces, then an IRF is a reference frame in which a mass moves with a constant velocity. (alternative definition of IRF)

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**Is Waterloo a good IRF? Is Waterloo accelerating? YES!**

Waterloo is on the Earth. The Earth is rotating. What is the centripetal acceleration of Waterloo? T = 1 day = 8.64 x 104 sec, R ~ RE = 6.4 x 106 meters . Plug this in: aU = .034 m/s2 ( ~ 1/300 g) Close enough to 0 that we will ignore it. Therefore Waterloo is a pretty good IRF.

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**Newton’s Second Law For any object, FNET = F = ma.**

The acceleration a of an object is proportional to the net force FNET acting on it. The constant of proportionality is called “mass”, denoted m. This is the definition of mass and force. The mass of an object is a constant property of that object, and is independent of external influences. The force is the external influence The acceleration is a combination of these two things Force has units of [M]x[L / T2] = kg m/s2 = N (Newton)

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**FNET = ma Newton’s Second Law... What is a force?**

A Force is a push or a pull. A Force has magnitude & direction (vector). Adding forces is just adding force vectors. a a F1 FNET = ma F1 FNET F2 F2

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**Newton’s Second Law... Components of F = ma : FX = maX FY = maY**

FZ = maZ Suppose we know m and FX , we can solve for aX and apply the things we learned about kinematics over the last few lectures: (if the force is constant)

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**Example: Pushing a Box on Ice.**

A skater is pushing a heavy box (mass m = 100 kg) across a sheet of ice (horizontal & frictionless). He applies a force of 50 N in the x direction. If the box starts at rest, what is its speed v after being pushed a distance d = 10 m? v = 0 F m a x

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**Example: Pushing a Box on Ice.**

A skater is pushing a heavy box (mass m = 100 kg) across a sheet of ice (horizontal & frictionless). He applies a force of 50 N in the x direction. If the box starts at rest, what is its speed v after being pushed a distance d = 10m ? v m F a x d

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**Example: Pushing a Box on Ice...**

Start with F = ma. a = F / m. Recall that v2 - v02 = 2a(x - x0 ) (Last Yeat) So v2 = 2Fd / m v F m a i d

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**Example: Pushing a Box on Ice...**

Plug in F = 50 N, d = 10 m, m = 100 kg: Find v = 3.2 m/s. v F m a i d

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**Question Force and acceleration**

A force F acting on a mass m1 results in an acceleration a1. The same force acting on a different mass m2 results in an acceleration a2 = 2a1. m1 m2 F a1 F a2 = 2a1 If m1 and m2 are glued together and the same force F acts on this combination, what is the resulting acceleration? m1 m2 F a = ? (a) 2/3 a (b) 3/2 a (c) 3/4 a1

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**Solution Force and acceleration**

m1 m2 F a = F / (m1+ m2) Since a2 = 2a1 for the same applied force, m2 = (1/2)m1 ! m1+ m2 = 3m1 /2 So a = (2/3)F / m1 but F/m1 = a1 a = 2/3 a1 (a) 2/3 a (b) 3/2 a (c) 3/4 a1

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**Forces We will consider two kinds of forces: Contact force:**

This is the most familiar kind. I push on the desk. The ground pushes on the chair... A spring pulls or pushes on a mass A rocket engine provides some number of Newtons of thrust (1 lb of thrust = mg = 2.205*9.81 = Newtons) Action at a distance: Gravity Electricity Magnetism

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**Contact forces: Objects in contact exert forces.**

Convention: Fa,b means acting on a due to b”. So Fhead,thumb means “the force on the head due to the thumb”. The Force Fhead,thumb

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Action at a Distance Gravity: Burp!

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**Gravitation (Courtesy of Newton)**

Newton found that amoon / g = and noticed that RE2 / R2 = This inspired him to propose the Universal Law of Gravitation: We will discuss these concepts later Hey, I’m in UCM! amoon g R RE where G = 6.67 x m3 kg-1 s-2 And the force is attractive along a line between the 2 objects

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Understanding If the distance between two point particles is doubled, then the gravitational force between them: Decreases by a factor of 4 Decreases by a factor of 2 Increases by a factor of 2 Increases by a factor of 4 Cannot be determined without knowing the masses

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**We will discuss these concepts in more detail later.**

Newton’s Third Law: Forces occur in pairs: FA ,B = - FB ,A. For every “action” there is an equal and opposite “reaction”. We have already seen this in the case of gravity: m1 m2 F12 F21 We will discuss these concepts in more detail later. R12

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Newton's Third Law... FA ,B = - FB ,A. is true for contact forces as well: Force on me from wall is equal and opposite to the force on the wall from the me. Fm,w Fw,m Fm,f Ff,m Force on me from the floor is equal and opposite to the force on the floor from the me.

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**Example of Bad Thinking**

Since Fm,b = -Fb,m, why isn’t Fnet = 0 and a = 0 ? block Fm,b Fb,m a ?? ice

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**Example of Good Thinking**

Consider only the box as the system! Fon box = mabox = Fb,m Free Body Diagram (next power point). block Fm,b Fb,m abox ice No ice Friction force

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**Add a wall that stops the motion of the block**

Now there are two forces acting (in the horizontal direction) on block and they cancel Fon box = mabox = Fb,m + Fb,w = 0 Free Body Diagram (next power point). block Fm,b Fb,m Fb,w Fw,b abox ice

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**Newton’s 3rd Law Understanding**

Two blocks are stacked on the ground. How many action-reaction pairs of forces are present in this system? (a) 2 (b) 3 4 5 a b

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**5 a b a b a b a b a b Solution: gravity gravity contact gravity**

very tiny gravity contact gravity contact FE,a Fa,E a b FE,b a b Fb,E Fb,a Fa,b a b Fb,g Fg,b a b a Fa,b b Fb,a 5

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Understanding A moon of mass m orbits a planet of mass 100m. Let the strength of the gravitational force exerted by the planet on the moon be denoted by F1, and let the strength of the gravitational force exerted by the moon on the planet be F2. Which of the following is true? F1=100F2 F1=10F2 F1=F2 F2=10F1 F2=100F1 Newton’s Third Law

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Flash: Newton’s 1St Law

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Flash: Newton’s 2nd Law

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Flash: Newton’s 3rd Law

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**Flash: Applications of Newton**

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