Presentation on theme: "What are the features of supportive teacher talk in speaking classes? Le Nu Cam Le, M.A Hanoi University of Science and Technology"— Presentation transcript:
What are the features of supportive teacher talk in speaking classes? Le Nu Cam Le, M.A Hanoi University of Science and Technology
Introduction to the research context Literature review Research design Conclusion
Introduction Research context - Speaking classes in Advanced Program - 15 weeks: 02 lessons/ week of 180 mins. - In-house course book ‘Speaking naturally’ Objectives of the course: to provide students with the opportunities to be exposed to and perform appropriate language functional phrases to develop students’ basic oral communication skills at intermediate level to get students used to initial ideas of teamwork
Literature review Teacher talk (TT): quantity and quality - Previous research focus on TT quantity - Recent research: TT quality, relationship between TT & learning opportunities, & the interconnection between TT and pedagogical purposes (Lee & Ng, 2009; Walsh, 2006, 2003, 2002; Seedhouse, 2004, 1997; Gil 2002; Kumaravadivelu, 1999; Kumaravadivelu,1999; Cullen, 1998; Johnson, 1995 and so on) - Quality more important than quantity, TT must be closely linked to the moment by moment agendas and institutional goal of the lesson - TT: creates learning opportunities/ potentials, controls content and procedure, discussion topic and students’ participation
Second language classroom contexts - Dynamic and constantly shifting, Ts need to make use of appropriate teacher talk based on pedagogical goals to enhance learning & learning opportunities as they are only maximized when teachers are sufficiently in control of their language use (Lee &Ng, 2009; Walsh, 2006, 2003, 2002; van Lier, 1996). - Seedhouse (2004): four classroom contexts: Form & accuracy, meaning & fluency contexts, task-oriented, and procedural contexts - Walsh (2006) coins the term mode as ‘a L2 classroom microcontext that has a clearly defined pedagogic goal and distinctive interactional features determined largely by a teacher’s use of language’. He identifies four modes: procedural, materials, skills and systems and classroom context modes
Research questions: What are the different classroom contexts/ modes in speaking lessons? In what ways do teachers, through their use of language, support learning speaking within these modes? Data collection Five lessons to be video/audio recorded as five and ten lessons in classroom research are reasonable database (Seedhouse, 2004) Recordings are transcribed according to CA conventions Research design
Data analysis Multilayered analysis: CA and the Self Evaluation of Teacher Talk Framework (SETT) CA: features of interaction: turn-taking, repair & sequential organization based on teaching goals SETT framework: interaction patterns, modes and their interactional features according to pedagogic aims
1. Classroom context modes a. Managerial mode Pedagogical goals: organize a task, summarize a particular stage of a lesson and the whole lesson, refer learners to material, manage learning and verify the procedures TT: single, extended teacher turn, transitional markers, confirmation check, display question (absence or little presence of learner contributions) Findings and discussion
Extract 1: T: Good morning (1). Last time we took unit what, unit 9, right? You learnt how to make suggestion, giving advice and expressing enthusiasm, right? So today we are going to look at unit 10, right? Good. Unit 10. Extract 2: T: All right, so we’ve practiced giving advice and providing suggestions. We are now moving to enthusiasm. You are going to talk to your friend about plan for the weekend. So student A will be looking at page 77, and student B will look at page 108, is in the appendix
b. Materials mode Pedagogical goals: to enable language practice from materials & elicit responses TT: extended wait-time, clarification request, teacher echo, scaffolding, direct repair and display question
1. TCould you please use any of these expressions (points to the book) and also these (points to the board) and give me some expressions or advices. 2. L1 Have you ever thought of changing your job? = 3. T=Have you ever thought of changing your job? Very good, yes, ah, already once already…, but I couldn’t give up my job now. Thank you. Another please (3) 4. L2If I were you, I would take some extra… 5. TIf I were you, I would take some? (1) 6. L2I mean that you should take some extra classes= 7. T= take extra classes? Why do I have to take classes, to study more? (3) 8. L2No, no, I mean you should give some extra classes= 9. Toh, I see, give some extra classes, but why? (2) 10. L2to earn more
c. Skills and system mode: Pedagogical goals: provide language practice to use appropriate functional phrases TT: scaffolding, clarification requests, direct repair, teacher echo and display question.
1. TCan you make a sentence using uh…to compare about 2. uh…yesterday’s weather and today’s weather? (2) 3. L1Today’s hotter than yesterday 4. TRight. Thank you. Ok, compare your study at university and your study at high school. 5. L2Studying in university is... [more hard] than in high school 6. T[harder]. Anything else? 7. L3Studying in university more comfortable than in high school 8. TOk, but why is that? 9. L3Uh... the classroom is bigger, (2) the class time is more flexible... we 10. don’t have to go to class every day and (2) the teacher is easier, not check attendance all the time 11. TVery good. Now, what do you know about the UK and the USA? Can we now talk about the similarities?
2. Features of teacher talk that supports learning a. Teachers’ use of interactional features (IF) and pedagogic focus - TT are congruent with pedagogical focus. Long or short TT: not relevant and not the determinant of supporting or not supporting students’ learning’ (Liu 2008: 88) - Quality and relevance to context decide learning opportunities b. Ability to handle mode switching and mode side sequence - popular mode switch: managerial – skills and systems managerial /and materials – skills and systems – materials. - mode movement initiated by both T & LL, but T brings the main mode back with the appropriate use of transitional markers and IF
c. Shaping learner contribution - Enable learners to produce more comprehensible & longer utterances, facilitate learners’ involvement & create more opportunities for negotiation of meanings - ensures other learners understand a contribution, keep learners together and ‘fine tunes their input’ (Walsh 2006: 134) - Mackey (2006): teachers who seek clarification, check for confirmation and encourage leaner contributions are likely to optimize learner learning potential than those who do not
1. TOk. You are now going to use any of the expressions in the book 2. and give me advice or suggestion. Well, I am so bored, so depressed now, I am heartbroken. 3. LLLaugh loudly 4. LWhy heart-broken? 5. TOh, my boyfriend left me because he has had another girl for him= 6. L1=Find another man for you 7. TWhat phrase for advice should you use? (1) 8. L1Oh, sorry... why don’t you find another man for you to get you happy 9. TOh, I see. Why don’t you find another man to make you happy again? 10. L2I think you should take activities, meet more people 11. TYou mean I should take part in social activities to meet more people? 12. L2 Yes, it’s a good idea to take part in social activities. You’ll meet 13. more people and if you are lucky, you’ll find another man for you 14. TOh, thanks a lot.
Conclusion Research aim: investigate features of TT that support learning To achieve this aim: identify different classroom contexts & examines the alignment between TT in these modes and pedagogical goal Data confirms the claim: - language classroom is composed of a variety of micro- contexts - It is teachers’ main job to actualize the process of interaction through their use of language based on pedagogical goals of lessons and stages within a lesson to create more opportunities for learning.
4. Three features of supportive TT: - the appropriateness between teachers’ use of interactional features & pedagogical goals, - teachers’ ability to move between & across different modes &direct learners to follow the classroom discourse without being lost - teachers’ ability to shape learners contribution. All these three features are instrumental in bring about opportunities for learning.